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Poema De Gilgamesh / Gilgamesh Poetry (Clasicos Del Pensamiento / Thought Classics)

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«Quiero dar a conocer a mi país a aquel que todo lo ha visto, a aquel que ha conocido lo profundo, que ha sabido todas las cosas, que ha examinado, en su totalidad, todos los misterios. A Gilgamesh, dotado de sabiduría, que lo ha conocido todo, que ha descubierto los secretos, que ha visto los misterios y que nos ha transmitido noticias anteriores al Diluvio.» El Poema de «Quiero dar a conocer a mi país a aquel que todo lo ha visto, a aquel que ha conocido lo profundo, que ha sabido todas las cosas, que ha examinado, en su totalidad, todos los misterios. A Gilgamesh, dotado de sabiduría, que lo ha conocido todo, que ha descubierto los secretos, que ha visto los misterios y que nos ha transmitido noticias anteriores al Diluvio.» El Poema de Gilgamesh constituye, tanto por su cronología como por su contenido argumental y fuerza poética, la primera de las grandes epopeyas literarias de la humanidad. En torno al sumerio Gilgamesh, rey de Uruk, que vivió hacia el año 2650 antes de Cristo, se fue forjando un conjunto de poemas míticos que, por su indudable interés, muy pronto se fijaron por escrito en tablillas de barro para terminar por conjuntarse en un todo argumental. A partir del siglo VII antes de nuestra era, la sombra de los siglos, al tiempo que cubría las ciudades de la antigua Mesopotamia, también lo hacía con el Poema de Gilgamesh, epopeya que permanecía muda hasta finales del siglo XIX (1872), fecha en que George Smith lograba, con un desciframiento, rescatar tal obra maestra y devolverla a la Historia de la Literatura. El Poema, estructurado en doce tablillas, cuestiona los grandes interrogantes que siempre han preocupado al hombre: significado de la vida, problema de la muerte, planteamiento de la inmortalidad y resignación ante el destino. Si bien pueden desprenderse ciertas notas pesimistas, la filosofía última del Poema transmite un mensaje esperanzador: la posibilidad que tiene todo hombre de alcanzar un nombre imperecedero. La versión del Poema de Gilgamesh que este libro ofrece ha sido fruto de la confrontación de diferentes ediciones de autorizados asiriólogos.


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«Quiero dar a conocer a mi país a aquel que todo lo ha visto, a aquel que ha conocido lo profundo, que ha sabido todas las cosas, que ha examinado, en su totalidad, todos los misterios. A Gilgamesh, dotado de sabiduría, que lo ha conocido todo, que ha descubierto los secretos, que ha visto los misterios y que nos ha transmitido noticias anteriores al Diluvio.» El Poema de «Quiero dar a conocer a mi país a aquel que todo lo ha visto, a aquel que ha conocido lo profundo, que ha sabido todas las cosas, que ha examinado, en su totalidad, todos los misterios. A Gilgamesh, dotado de sabiduría, que lo ha conocido todo, que ha descubierto los secretos, que ha visto los misterios y que nos ha transmitido noticias anteriores al Diluvio.» El Poema de Gilgamesh constituye, tanto por su cronología como por su contenido argumental y fuerza poética, la primera de las grandes epopeyas literarias de la humanidad. En torno al sumerio Gilgamesh, rey de Uruk, que vivió hacia el año 2650 antes de Cristo, se fue forjando un conjunto de poemas míticos que, por su indudable interés, muy pronto se fijaron por escrito en tablillas de barro para terminar por conjuntarse en un todo argumental. A partir del siglo VII antes de nuestra era, la sombra de los siglos, al tiempo que cubría las ciudades de la antigua Mesopotamia, también lo hacía con el Poema de Gilgamesh, epopeya que permanecía muda hasta finales del siglo XIX (1872), fecha en que George Smith lograba, con un desciframiento, rescatar tal obra maestra y devolverla a la Historia de la Literatura. El Poema, estructurado en doce tablillas, cuestiona los grandes interrogantes que siempre han preocupado al hombre: significado de la vida, problema de la muerte, planteamiento de la inmortalidad y resignación ante el destino. Si bien pueden desprenderse ciertas notas pesimistas, la filosofía última del Poema transmite un mensaje esperanzador: la posibilidad que tiene todo hombre de alcanzar un nombre imperecedero. La versión del Poema de Gilgamesh que este libro ofrece ha sido fruto de la confrontación de diferentes ediciones de autorizados asiriólogos.

30 review for Poema De Gilgamesh / Gilgamesh Poetry (Clasicos Del Pensamiento / Thought Classics)

  1. 4 out of 5

    Ahmad Sharabiani

    Shutur eli sharri = The Epic of Gilgamesh, Anonymous The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from ancient Mesopotamia that is often regarded as the earliest surviving great work of literature. The literary history of Gilgamesh begins with five Sumerian poems about Bilgamesh (Sumerian for "Gilgamesh"), king of Uruk, dating from the Third Dynasty of Ur (c. 2100 BC). These independent stories were later used as source material for a combined epic. The first surviving version of this combined epic, kn Shutur eli sharri = The Epic of Gilgamesh, Anonymous The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from ancient Mesopotamia that is often regarded as the earliest surviving great work of literature. The literary history of Gilgamesh begins with five Sumerian poems about Bilgamesh (Sumerian for "Gilgamesh"), king of Uruk, dating from the Third Dynasty of Ur (c. 2100 BC). These independent stories were later used as source material for a combined epic. The first surviving version of this combined epic, known as the "Old Babylonian" version, dates to the 18th century BC and is titled after its incipit, Shūtur eli sharrī ("Surpassing All Other Kings"). Only a few tablets of it have survived. The later "standard" version dates from the 13th to the 10th centuries BC and bears the incipit Sha naqba īmuru ("He who Saw the Deep", in modern terms: "He who Sees the Unknown"). Approximately two thirds of this longer, twelve-tablet version have been recovered. Some of the best copies were discovered in the library ruins of the 7th-century BC Assyrian king Ashurbanipal. The first half of the story discusses Gilgamesh, king of Uruk, and Enkidu, a wild man created by the gods to stop Gilgamesh from oppressing the people of Uruk. After Enkidu becomes civilized through sexual initiation with a harlot, he travels to Uruk, where he challenges Gilgamesh to a test of strength. Gilgamesh wins and the two become friends. Together, they make a six-day journey to the legendary Cedar Forest, where they plan to slay the Guardian, Humbaba the Terrible, and cut down the sacred Cedar. Later they kill the Bull of Heaven, which the goddess Ishtar sends to punish Gilgamesh for spurning her advances. As a punishment for these actions, the gods sentence Enkidu to death. In the second half of the epic, distress about Enkidu's death causes Gilgamesh to undertake a long and perilous journey to discover the secret of eternal life. He eventually learns that "Life, which you look for, you will never find. For when the gods created man, they let death be his share, and life withheld in their own hands". However, because of his great building projects, his account of Siduri's advice, and what the immortal man Utnapishtim told him about the Great Flood, Gilgamesh's fame survived his death. His story has been translated into many languages, and in recent years has featured in works of popular fiction. تاریخ نخستین خوانش: در روزهای ماه جولای سال 2004 و دوباره در نوامبر سال 2005 میلادی و در ماه آگوست سال 2006 میلادی عنوان: گیلگمش؛ نویسنده: ناشناس؛ برگردان: احمد شاملو؛ تهران، نگاه، 1379؛ در 240 ص؛ شابک: 9643510182؛ موضوع: اساطیر آشوری و بابلی - قرن 21 پیش از میلاد گیلگمش، پادشاهی خودکامه و پهلوان بود. او نیمه‌ آسمانی (دوسوم وجودش ایزدی و یک‌ سومش انسانی) بود. حماسه ی «گیلگمش»، با بیان کارها و پیروزی‌های قهرمان، آغاز می‌شود، به گونه‌ ای که او را مردی بزرگ در پهنه ی دانش و خرد، معرفی می‌کند. او می‌تواند توفان را پیش‌ بینی کند. مرگ دوست صمیمی‌ اش «اِنکیدو»، او را بسیار پریشان میکند، برای همین «گیلگمش»، پای در سفری طولانی، برای جستجوی جاودانگی می‌گذارد، سپس خسته و درمانده به خانه بازمی‌گردد؛ و شرح رنج‌هایی را که کشیده بر گِل‌ نوشته‌ ای ثبت می‌کند. حماسه «گیلگمش» در ایران نیز شهرت دارد. نخستین ترجمه فارسی گیلگمش، توسط دکتر «منشی‌زاده» در سال 1333 خورشیدی انجام شد، و پس از آن نیز ترجمه‌ های دیگری منتشر شدند. ا. شربیانی شروع نقل از ویکیپدیا: حماسه «گیلگمش» در دوازده لوح ذکر می‌شود که حوادث این دوازده لوح، تیتر وار چنین هستند: 1 - «گیلگمش»، آن که از هر سختی شادتر می‌شود... آفرینش «انکیدو»، و رفتن وی به «اوروک»، شهری که حصار دارد. 2 - باز یافتن «انکیدو» «گیلگمش» را، و رای زدن ایشان از برای جنگیدن با «خومبه به، همان هومبا با»، نگهبان جنگل سدر خدایان. 3 - ترک گفتن «انکیدو» شهر را و بازگشت وی، نخستین رؤیای «انکیدو». 4 - برانگیختن «شمش» خدای سوزان آفتاب، «گیلگمش» را به جنگ با «هومبا با» و کشتن ایشان دروازه‌بان «هومبا با» را. 5 - رسیدن ایشان به جنگل‌های سدر مقدس. نخستین رویای گیلگمش. دومین رویای گیلگمش. جنگ با «خومبه به» و کشتن وی، بازگشتن به «اوروک». 6 - گفت و گوی «گیلگمش» با «ایشتر» الهه عشق و برشمردن زشتکاری‌های او. جنگ «گیلگمش» و «انکیدو» با «نر گاو آسمان» و کشتن آن و جشن و شادی برپا کردن. 7 - دومین رویای «انکیدو». بیماری «انکیدو». 8 - مرگ «انکیدو» و زاری «گیلگامش». شتاب کردن «گیلگمش» به جانب دشت و گفت و گو با نخجیرباز. 9 - سومین رویای «گیلگمش ». رو در راه نهادن «گیلگامش» در جستجوی راز حیات جاویدان، و رسیدن وی به دروازهء ظلمات، گفت و گو با دروازه بانان و به راه افتادن در دره‌های تاریکی، راه نمودن «شمش» خدای آفتاب «گیلگمش» را به جانب «سی دوری سابی تو» فرزانه کوهساران نگهبان درخت زندگی رسیدن گیلگمش به باغ خدایان. 10 - گفت و گوی «گیلگمش» و «سی دوری سابی تو»؛و راهنمایی «سی دوری سابی تو»، خاتونی فرزانه، «گیلگمش» را به جانب زورق «اوتنپیشتیم». دیدار گیلگمش و «اورشه نبی» کشتیبان؛ به کشتی نشستن و گذشتن از آب‌های مرگ، دیدار «گیلگمش» و ئوت نه پیش تیم دور، «گیلگمش» را؛ و شکست «گیلگمش». آگاهی دادن «اوتنپیشتیم دور»، گیلگمش را ار راز گیاه اعجازآمیز دریا. به دست آوردن «گیلگمش» گیاه اعجازآمیز را و خوردن مار، گیاه را و بازگشت «گیلگمش» به شهر «اوروک». 11 - عزیمت «گیلگمش» به جهان زیرین خاک، و گفت و گوی او با سایه ی «انکیدو». 12 - پایان کار گیلگمش. پایان نقل از ویکیپدیا

  2. 5 out of 5

    Ahmad Ebaid

    "لأنه ليس من قدر الإنسان أن يحيا إلى الأبد ولكن لإنجازاته أن تخلد اسمه للأجيال اللاحقة" "As for human beings, their days are numbered, and only their achievements that could establish their name to the latter generations." The oldest discovered "truly literature" epic ever in history, the immortal outstanding Odyssey of Iraq. Gilgamesh, the two-thirds god, symbol of Sumerian myth. Origin of all stories and tales, which the old ancient civilizations quoted Source of myths and superstition You woul "لأنه ليس من قدر الإنسان أن يحيا إلى الأبد ولكن لإنجازاته أن تخلد اسمه للأجيال اللاحقة" "As for human beings, their days are numbered, and only their achievements that could establish their name to the latter generations." The oldest discovered "truly literature" epic ever in history, the immortal outstanding Odyssey of Iraq. Gilgamesh, the two-thirds god, symbol of Sumerian myth. Origin of all stories and tales, which the old ancient civilizations quoted Source of myths and superstition You would be surprised by knowing the ancient assets of present, that the men just do developing rather than innovate from nothing Unmatchable effort from the archaeologist "Taha Baker" to reintroduce the Arabic edition, furthermore the high-quality translation, he made great analysis and imagination to the missed parts of the mud tablets, and wrote margins to match the bible phrases to the one in THE EPIC OF GILGAMESH. Penguin edition was twice long as the Arabic one, because it offered several texts of Babylonian and Sumerian tablets. so don't worry about any skip in the Arabic translation. I think the following paintings are able to seduce you to read the EPIC أقدم ملحمة أدبية "حقيقية" مكتشفة في التاريخ، "أوديسة" العراق الخالدة. "جلجامش" ثلثي الإله، رمز الأسطورة السومرية، أصل كل القصص والحكايات، ارتوت جميع الحضارات القديمة منها، منبع كل الأساطير والخرافات. لسوف يدهشك معرفة الأصول القديمة للحاضر، فالبشر فقط يطورون ولا يخترعون من العدم.. ومجهود عظيم من العالم "طه باقر" في الكتاب. طه باقر قدم ترجمة عظيمة وتخيلات للنصوص الناقصة من القصة، وهوامش عن الأجزاء التي اقتبستها التوراة منها. دي صور للملحمة كفيلة بإنها تغري أي حد بقراءتها: أول 8 لوحات بريشة الفنان العراقي رعد فليح The first eight paintings by the Iraqi "Raad Felih" 1- "GILGAMESH meets SIDURI the god of beer and wine." 2- "GILGAMESH catches the horns of the holy bull." 3- "The monsters treated ENKIDU as a traitor after a prostitute seduces him." 4- "GILGAMESH and ENKIDU verse HUMBABA, the guardian of the Cedar Forest." 5- "GILGAMESH and ENKIDU on their own journey." 6- "ENKIDU after cutting the head of Holy bull sent by Ishtar's dad." 7- " "GILGAMESH crosses the death sea, to reach the flood hero UTNAPISHTIM. 8- "GILGAMESH sends a prostitute to seduce ENKIDU " ودي صور تانية لازم ولا بد تشوفها: Another must seen paintings "Discovering of two statuses to men with a body of winged Bull - اكتشاف تمثالين على جسد ثور مجنح" "Comparing to lion body, this is how big is GILGAMESH - حجم جلجامش مقارنة بحجم أسد كبير" "GILGAMESH with a whip - جلجامش وكرباج" "GILGAMESH and his friend ENKIDU - جلجامش وصديقه إنكيدو" "GILGAMESH sorrow after ENKIDU's death - حزن جلجامش بعد موت إنكيدو" "GILGAMESH after a serpent robbed the eternity fruit - جلجامش بعد أن سلبته الحية ثمرة الخلود" **** A short video about story line of the EPIC ودا فيديو مترجم عربي يوضح ملخص القصة -فيه شوية اختلافات عن نسخه طه باقر-: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HKhDp... **** A song about the EPIC by KAZIM EL-SAHER, soon. أغنية لكاظم الساهر بنفس الاسم بردوا.... قريباً **** The EPIC as a carol in Arabic. should push you into the mood ودي القصة مغناة على موسيقى وصوت جهوري ذو نغمة مميزة هيدخلك في المود The EPIC as a carol - ملحمة جلجامش مغناة

  3. 4 out of 5

    Ahmad Sharabiani

    The Epic of Gilgamesh, Anonymous, N.K. Sandars (Translator) The literary history of Gilgamesh begins with five Sumerian poems about 'Bilgamesh' (Sumerian for 'Gilgamesh'), king of Uruk. These independent stories were later used as source material for a combined epic. The first surviving version of this combined epic, known as the "Old Babylonian" version, dates to the 18th century BC and is titled after its incipit, Shūtur eli sharrī ("Surpassing All Other Kings"). Only a few tablets of it have s The Epic of Gilgamesh, Anonymous, N.K. Sandars (Translator) The literary history of Gilgamesh begins with five Sumerian poems about 'Bilgamesh' (Sumerian for 'Gilgamesh'), king of Uruk. These independent stories were later used as source material for a combined epic. The first surviving version of this combined epic, known as the "Old Babylonian" version, dates to the 18th century BC and is titled after its incipit, Shūtur eli sharrī ("Surpassing All Other Kings"). Only a few tablets of it have survived. The later "Standard" version dates from the 13th to the 10th centuries BC and bears the incipit Sha naqba īmuru ("He who Saw the Deep", in modern terms: "He who Sees the Unknown"). Approximately two thirds of this longer, twelve-tablet version have been recovered. Some of the best copies were discovered in the library ruins of the 7th-century BC Assyrian king Ashurbanipal. نخستین خوانش این نسخه با متن انگلیسی: اول آگوست سال 2006 میلادی گیلگمش، پادشاهی خودکامه و پهلوان و «زمینی آسمانی» بود. دوسوم وجودش را ایزدی، و یک‌سومش را انسانی بنوشته اند. حماسه ی «گیلگمش»، با بیان کارها و پیروزی‌های قهرمان، آغاز می‌شود، به گونه‌ ای که او را مردی بزرگ، در پهنه ی دانش و خرد، معرفی می‌کند. او می‌تواند توفان را پیش‌ بینی کند. مرگ دوست صمیمی‌ اش «اِنکیدو»، ایشان را بسیار پریشان کرده، برای همین «گیلگمش»، پای در سفری طولانی، برای جستجوی جاودانگی می‌گذارد، سپس خسته و درمانده، به خانه بازمی‌گردد، و شرح رنج‌هایی را که کشیده، بر گِل‌ نوشته‌ ای ثبت می‌کند. حماسه ی «گیلگمش» در ایران نیز شهرت دارد. نخستین ترجمه ی فارسی آن، توسط دکتر «منشی‌زاده» در سال 1333 هجری خورشیدی انجام شد، و پس از آن نیز ترجمه‌ های دیگری منتشر شد. حماسه ی «گیلگمش» در دوازده لوح است. عنوان رخدادهای این دوازده لوح، تیتروار چنین هستند: 1 - «گیلگمش»، آنکه از هر سختی شادتر می‌شود... آفرینش «انکیدو»، و رفتن وی به «اوروک»، شهری که حصار دارد. 2 - باز یافتن «انکیدو»، «گیلگمش» را، و رای زدن ایشان از برای جنگیدن با «خومبه به، همان هومبا با»، نگهبان جنگل سدر خدایان. 3 - ترک گفتن «انکیدو» شهر را، و بازگشت وی، نخستین رؤیای «انکیدو». 4 - برانگیختن «شِمِش» خدای سوزان آفتاب، «گیلگمش» را، به جنگ با «هومبا با»، و کشتن ایشان دروازه‌ بان «هومبا با» را. 5 - رسیدن ایشان به جنگل‌های سدر مقدس. نخستین رویای گیلگمش. دومین رویای گیلگمش. جنگ با «خومبه به» و کشتن وی، بازگشتن به اوروک. 6 - گفتگوی «گیلگمش» با «ایشتر»، الهه ی عشق، و برشمردن زشتکاری‌های او. جنگ «گیلگمش» و «انکیدو»، با «نر گاو آسمان» و کشتن آن، و جشن و شادی برپا کردن. 7 - دومین رویای «انکیدو». بیماری «انکیدو». 8 - مرگ «انکیدو» و زاری «گیلگامش». شتاب کردن «گیلگمش» به جانب دشت، و گفتگو با نخجیرباز. 9 - سومین رویای «گیلگمش ». رو در راه نهادن «گیلگامش»، در جستجوی راز حیات جاویدان، و رسیدن وی به دروازه ی ظلمات، گفتگو با دروازه بانان، و به راه افتادن در دره‌ های تاریکی، راه نمودن «شِمِش» خدای آفتاب گیلگمش را به جانب «سی دوری سابی تو»، فرزانه ی کوهساران، نگهبان درخت زندگی، رسیدن گیلگمش به باغ خدایان. 10 - گفتگوی «گیلگمش»، و «سی دوری سابی تو»؛ و راهنمایی «سی دوری سابی تو»، خاتونی فرزانه، «گیلگمش» را، به جانب زورق «اوتنپیشتیم». دیدار گیلگمش و «اورشه نبی» کشتیبان؛ به کشتی نشستن، و گذشتن از آب‌های مرگ، دیدار «گیلگمش» و ئوت نه پیش تیم دور، «گیلگمش» را؛ و شکست «گیلگمش». آگاهی دادن «اوتنپیشتیم دور»، گیلگمش را، ار راز گیاه اعجازآمیز دریا. به دست آوردن «گیلگمش»، گیاه اعجازآمیز را، و خوردن مار گیاه را، و بازگشت «گیلگمش»، به شهر «اوروک». 11 - عزیمت «گیلگمش» به جهان زیرین خاک، و گفتگوی او با سایه ی «انکیدو». 12 - پایان کار گیلگمش. ا. شربیانی

  4. 5 out of 5

    Stephen

    5.0 stars. I thought this story was AMAZING. However, before I go any further I do want to point out that this review is solely for the version I read which was “Gilgamesh: A New English Version” by Stephen Mitchell. I say this because for a story written over 4000 years ago (approximately 2100 BC) about a King who lived over 4700 years ago (approximately 2750 BC) and was written in cuneiform in an extinct language (Akkadian), I imagine that the particular translation one reads may have a profou 5.0 stars. I thought this story was AMAZING. However, before I go any further I do want to point out that this review is solely for the version I read which was “Gilgamesh: A New English Version” by Stephen Mitchell. I say this because for a story written over 4000 years ago (approximately 2100 BC) about a King who lived over 4700 years ago (approximately 2750 BC) and was written in cuneiform in an extinct language (Akkadian), I imagine that the particular translation one reads may have a profound impact on the reading experience. I also note that the version I read has been criticized by others for being too subjective an interpretation. I will probably read an alternative translation at some point to compare the two but for now all I can say is that I LOVED STEPHEN MITCHELL’S VERSION. In addition to having the complete text of the epic poem, Mitchell includes about 75 pages worth on analysis and insight into the story that I thought enhanced the reading experience for me. Rather then go into the details of the story which are adequately explained in the book description and are fairly well known, I will just give some thoughts about my impression of the story. This is an epic heroic story in the ancient sense of the word. Gilgamesh is a hero like the Greek gods, not necessarily “good” but rather smarter, stronger and more powerful than all those around him. Later when he meets his friend/brother Enkidu, the two embark on the first quest adventure ever written and their travels make for a wonderful story. While reading this, I kept finding myself thinking that I can’t believe this was written over 4000 years ago and is still so incredibly entertaining. I was also amazed that this story (again written over 4000 years ago) includes an almost verbatim version of the “Great Flood” story from the Old Testament down to the smallest details. There is a similar allusion to the loss of innocence through the machinations of an evil serpent that bear a striking example to the “Fall of Adam and Eve.” I thought this was fascinating on many levels. Finally, and most importantly in my opinion, this story is about the journey of knowledge and self-discovery and about learning that the home you may have once run away from in order to look for greener pastures can turn out to be a pretty special place after all. From that perspective alone, this is a beautifully written and powerful story and one that I would strongly recommend. One final note: I listened to the audio version narrated by George Guidall who did an absolutely superb job and added to my enjoyment of the narrative. HIGHEST POSSIBLE RECOMMENDATION!!!

  5. 5 out of 5

    Riku Sayuj

    He Who Saw The Deep: A Hymn to Survival The Gilgamesh epic is one of the great masterpieces of world literature. One of the early translations so inspired the poet Rainer Maria Rilke in 1916 that he became almost intoxicated with pleasure and wonder, and repeated the story to all he met. 'Gilgamesh,' he declared, 'is stupendous!' For him the epic was first and foremost 'das Epos der Todesfurcht', the epic about the fear of death. This universal theme does indeed tie together the various strands He Who Saw The Deep: A Hymn to Survival The Gilgamesh epic is one of the great masterpieces of world literature. One of the early translations so inspired the poet Rainer Maria Rilke in 1916 that he became almost intoxicated with pleasure and wonder, and repeated the story to all he met. 'Gilgamesh,' he declared, 'is stupendous!' For him the epic was first and foremost 'das Epos der Todesfurcht', the epic about the fear of death. This universal theme does indeed tie together the various strands of the epic poem - it tells of one man's heroic struggle against death, for eternal life - first through immortal renown through glorious deeds, then for eternal life itself. It then goes on to describe of his despair when confronted with the inevitable failure, and of his eventual realization that the only immortality he may expect is the enduring name afforded by leaving behind some lasting achievement. The epic is also a work from which one is expected to learn from: the poet enjoins us in the prologue, to read about 'the travails of Gilgamesh, all that he went through!' The lesson is that maturity is gained as much through failure as success. Life, of necessity, is hard, but one is the wiser for it. Thus, it is also a story of one man's 'path to wisdom', of how he is formed by his successes and failures. It also deals with profound debates on the proper duties of kingship, what a good king should do and should not do - in the end, Uta-napishti’s lesson to Gilgamesh is of the duties of kings and discourses on the inevitability of death and the fleeting nature of life. The wisdom he received at the ends of the earth from the survivor of the Deluge, Uta-napishti, enabled Gilgamesh to restore civilization to its earlier splendor. The quest has taught Gilgamesh how to build his city back to its antediluvian glory. The Flood: A Hymn to Survival Through Uta-napishti’, the epic also artfully weaves into Gilgamesh's own story the traditional tale of the Deluge, the great flood that permeates most ancient myths. Here, Gilgamesh brings home an important meaning of the ever-present flood myth. It allows us to see that the conquering of death is impossible but that preserving of life (and culture and civilization - ancient myths like to personify entire civilizations in its heroes) is the most important challenge. And it is achievable. Gilgamesh has always been thought of as a life-affirming epic that asks us to live life and abandon the quest for avoiding death. But look once again at the advice of the flood-surviver, Uta-napishti: ‘O man of Shuruppak, son of Ubar-Tutu, demolish the house, and build a boat! Abandon wealth, and seek survival!  Spurn property, save life! Take on board the boat all living things' seed!’ *** ‘No one at all sees Death, no one at all sees the face [of Death,] no one at all [hears] the voice of Death, Death so savage, who hacks men down.’ *** 'Ever do we build our households, ever do we make our nests, ever do brothers divide their inheritance, ever do feuds arise in the land.' *** 'Ever the river has risen and brought us the flood, the mayfly floating on the water. On the face of the sun its countenance gazes, then all of a sudden nothing is there!’ Gilgamesh does not ask human kind to avoid the fruitless quest. It was in fact his quest for the unreachable that allowed Gilgamesh to find his way, to find himself and to restore life/civilization. The quest is as unavoidable as Enkidu’s death that prompted it. As long as Enkidus die, Gilgameshs will try to soar beyond human capacity. This is the cause for great hope. Gilgamesh celebrates an hopeful view that even mighty floods and decay cannot completely wipe out human civilization. It comes mighty close and it takes a wise king like Gilgamesh, but it is possible to overcome, to prevail. That is the hope that Gilgamesh holds out to us. ****** Post Script: A Damaged Masterpiece This edition is probably the most comprehensive and scholarly version of the epic yet published. It is not dumbed down for the general audience and is not easy reading. The translator has opted for the integrity of the text over the ease of the reader. The text presented in this translation is fragmentary at best and could be frustrating for the reader. It takes patience and imagination from the reader to work through passages such as this (…. indicate missing text) : In spite of all the difficulties, it is worth persevering. For this translation is definitely more rewarding than the 'freer' translations such as Stephen Mitchell’s. However, a cautionary note for the reader (from the translator): While there is a temptation for a modern editor to ignore the gaps, to gloss them over or to join up disconnected fragments of text, I believe that no adult reader is well served by such a procedure. The gaps are themselves important in number and size, for they remind us how much is still to be learned of the text. They prevent us from assuming that we have Gilgamesh entire. Whatever we say about the epic is provisional, for new discoveries of text may change our interpretation of whole passages. Nevertheless, the epic we have now is considerably fuller than that which fired the imagination of Rilke. Approach what lies ahead not as you might the poems of Homer but as a book part-eaten by termites or a scroll half-consumed by fire. Accept it for what it is, a damaged masterpiece.

  6. 5 out of 5

    Foad

    گیلگمش "گيلگمش" در ابتداى حماسه، وقتى همچون كودكى خردسال از جهان و معماهاى جهان فارغ است، مردى است تنومند، دو سومش خدا و يك سومش انسان، با نشاط و سرشار از سلامتى و زورمندى، با كمربندهاى مرصع و دستبندهاى طلا و سهمى ثابت از نخستين شب هر دخترى كه در شهرش "اوروك" ازدواج مى كرد. پادشاهى كه از فرط استغنا به عشق ايزدبانوى عشق، عشتار، با تحقير و استخفاف پاسخ رد مى دهد، و وقتى ايزدبانو از خشم هيولاى آسمان را در شهر اوروك رها مى كند، بى آن كه تشويشى به دل راه دهد دو شاخ هيولا را مى گيرد و او را مى كشد. مرد گیلگمش "گيلگمش" در ابتداى حماسه، وقتى همچون كودكى خردسال از جهان و معماهاى جهان فارغ است، مردى است تنومند، دو سومش خدا و يك سومش انسان، با نشاط و سرشار از سلامتى و زورمندى، با كمربندهاى مرصع و دستبندهاى طلا و سهمى ثابت از نخستين شب هر دخترى كه در شهرش "اوروك" ازدواج مى كرد. پادشاهى كه از فرط استغنا به عشق ايزدبانوى عشق، عشتار، با تحقير و استخفاف پاسخ رد مى دهد، و وقتى ايزدبانو از خشم هيولاى آسمان را در شهر اوروك رها مى كند، بى آن كه تشويشى به دل راه دهد دو شاخ هيولا را مى گيرد و او را مى كشد. مردى به تمام معنا كامروا. همين گيلگمش را در انتهاى حماسه، وقتى با يكى از معماهاى جهان رو به رو مى شود، ببين: موجودى خوار و بى مقدار، با چهره اى تكيده، مو و ريشى ژوليده، پوستى آفتاب سوخته، خسته و بى رمق از پيمودن بيابان از پس بيابان، كه به التماس از نگهبانان دروازۀ ظلمات مى خواهد او را راه دهند بلكه بتواند پاسخش را در آن سوى ظلمات بيابد، و نگهبانان فقط از سر ترحم در را به رويش مى گشايند. اين همان گيلگمش است كه در ساحت زندگى ناسوتى به همه چيز رسيده بود، و حالا در مقابل جهانى كمى وسيع تر از اوروك، اين گونه سيلى خور خاك و باد شده است. بانو "سابيتو" كه باورش نمى شود اين همان گيلگمش باشد، مى گويد: «اگر تو گيلگمشى كه هيولاى آسمان را گرفته بشكستى، و هوم‌ببۀ اهريمن را به خون دركشيدى، و در گذرگاه كوهستان شير بسيار به خاك افكندى، گونه هايت چرا اين چنين فروكاسته، رخسارت از اين دست چرا فروهشته است؟ تشويش چرا از اين سان در قعر جان توست؟» دست آخر، وقتى آخرين اميدش براى گشودن معماى جهان نيز بر باد مى رود، زارى كنان از سفر ناكامش به جهان ناشناخته ها، به زادگاهش باز مى گردد، و ترجيح مى دهد در داخل ديوارهاى امن اوروك زندگى كند و بميرد، بى آن كه ديگر سرِ پنجه در پنجه افكندن با معماهاى هستى را داشته باشد. انکیدو نخستین لوحه های حماسۀ "گیل گمش"، کهن ترین حماسه ی یافته شده ی بشری، نه به ماجرای گیلگمش، بلکه به ماجرای "اِنکیدو" اختصاص دارد که ایزدبانوی آفرینش او را از خاک رُس و بزاق خود می آفریند. انکیدو دور از شهرها و آدمیان، در دشت و با حیوانات زندگی می کند. با حیوانات غذا می خورد و با حیوانات آب می نوشد. آهوان را از دام های شکارچیان دور می کند و نمی گذارد صیادان چیزی شکار کنند. یکی از شکارچیان که از این وضع به تنگ آمده، حیله ای هولناک می اندیشد و دامی مرگبار برای انکیدو می گشاید. به شهر می رود و یکی از راهبه های ایزدبانوی عشق را همراه خود می آورد و به او می گوید از تمام جاذبه های خود استفاده کند و به هر نحو که شده، انکیدو را به عشق خود گرفتار کند. راهبه، انکیدو را به عشق خود گرفتار می کند. بر او لباس می پوشاند و او را به شهر می آورد تا با آدمیان حشر و نشر پیدا می کند. انکیدو پس از آن گناهان فراوان مرتکب می شود و به مقدّسات بسیار بی حرمتی می کند. دیگر هیچ چیز او را باز نمی دارد. شبی در خواب می بیند که خدایان مجلسی ترتیب داده اند و قصد دارند که او را به خاطر گناهانش به مرگ مجازات کنند. انکیدو، پریشان و سرگشته به دشت می آید. حال به هر سو که می رود، حیوانات از او می رمند. حال دیگر او "دانا" شده. پس با ضجه و زاری معشوقش را نفرین می کند که مسبّب "دانایی" او شده و از زندگی وحشیانه بیرونش آورده است. انکیدو دوازده روز در بستر بیماری می افتد، و بعد می میرد. ترجمه این کتاب رو یه بار باید برای خودش خوند و یه بار باید برای ترجمه ی بی نظیر احمد شاملو خوند. به قدری زیبا از کلمات و زبان فارسی قرن چهار و پنج استفاده کرده که آدم نمیتونه تصور کنه گیلگمش به زبانی غیر از همین زبان نوشته شده باشه. من متاسفانه از شاملو فقط ترجمه ی شازده کوچولو و گیلگمش و دن آرام رو خوندم، ولی اگه باقی آثارش در همین سطح باشن، به جرأت میگم یکی از مفاخر تکرار نشدنی ادبیات فارسی معاصره. این متن رو قبلاً نوشته بودم. بعداً با مصاحبه های ابراهیم گلستان و دیگران، متوجه شدم که انگار شاملو واقعاً مترجم نبوده. متن هایی که قبلاً ترجمه شده بودن رو بر می داشته و با نثر خودش بازنویسی می کرده. نمی دونم چطور باید قضاوت کرد. پس قضاوت نمی کنم.

  7. 4 out of 5

    Ahmad Sharabiani

    Gilgamesh: A New English Version, Stephen Mitchell Gilgamesh: A New English Version is a book about Gilgamesh by Stephen Mitchell. It was published in New York by The Free Press in 2004, ISBN 978-0-7432-6164-7. The literary history of Gilgamesh begins with five Sumerian poems about 'Bilgamesh' (Sumerian for 'Gilgamesh'), king of Uruk. These independent stories were later used as source material for a combined epic. The first surviving version of this combined epic, known as the "Old Babylonian" v Gilgamesh: A New English Version, Stephen Mitchell Gilgamesh: A New English Version is a book about Gilgamesh by Stephen Mitchell. It was published in New York by The Free Press in 2004, ISBN 978-0-7432-6164-7. The literary history of Gilgamesh begins with five Sumerian poems about 'Bilgamesh' (Sumerian for 'Gilgamesh'), king of Uruk. These independent stories were later used as source material for a combined epic. The first surviving version of this combined epic, known as the "Old Babylonian" version, dates to the 18th century BC and is titled after its incipit, Shūtur eli sharrī ("Surpassing All Other Kings"). Only a few tablets of it have survived. The later "Standard" version dates from the 13th to the 10th centuries BC and bears the incipit Sha naqba īmuru ("He who Saw the Deep", in modern terms: "He who Sees the Unknown"). Approximately two thirds of this longer, twelve-tablet version have been recovered. Some of the best copies were discovered in the library ruins of the 7th-century BC Assyrian king Ashurbanipal. تاریخ نخستین خوانش: ماه جولای 2004 میلادی؛ ماه نوامبر 2005 میلادی و ماه آگوست سال 2006 میلادی گیلگمش، پادشاهی خودکامه و پهلوان و نیمه‌ آسمانی (دوسوم وجودش ایزدی، و یک‌سومش انسانی) بود. حماسه ی «گیلگمش»، با بیان کارها و پیروزی‌های قهرمان، آغاز می‌شود، به گونه‌ ای که او را مردی بزرگ، در پهنه ی دانش و خرد، معرفی می‌کند. او می‌تواند توفان را پیش‌ بینی کند. مرگ دوست صمیمی‌ خویش «اِنکیدو»، او را بسیار پریشان کرده، برای همین «گیلگمش»، پای در سفری ذور و دراز، برای جستجوی جاودانگی می‌گذارد، سپس خسته و درمانده، به خانه بازمی‌گردد، و شرح رنج‌هایی را که کشیده، بر لوح های گل‌ نوشته‌، ثبت می‌کند. حماسه ی «گیلگمش»، در ایران نیز شهرت دارد. نخستین ترجمه ی فارسی آن، توسط دکتر «منشی‌ زاده»، در سال 1333 هجری خورشیدی، انجام شد، و پس از آن نیز ترجمه‌ های دیگری منتشر شد. حماسه ی «گیلگمش» در دوازده لوح است. عنوان رخدادهای این دوازده لوح، تیتروار چنین هستند: 1 - «گیلگمش»، آنکه از هر سختی شادتر می‌شود... آفرینش «انکیدو»، و رفتن وی به «اوروک»، شهری که حصار دارد. 2 - باز یافتن «انکیدو»، «گیلگمش» را، و رای زدن ایشان از برای جنگیدن با «خومبه به، همان هومبا با»، نگهبان جنگل سدر خدایان. 3 - ترک گفتن «انکیدو» شهر را، و بازگشت وی، نخستین رؤیای «انکیدو». 4 - برانگیختن «شِمِش» خدای سوزان آفتاب، «گیلگمش» را، به جنگ با «هومبا با»، و کشتن ایشان دروازه‌ بان «هومبا با» را. 5 - رسیدن ایشان به جنگل‌های سدر مقدس. نخستین رویای گیلگمش. دومین رویای گیلگمش. جنگ با «خومبه به» و کشتن وی، بازگشتن به اوروک. 6 - گفتگوی «گیلگمش» با «ایشتر»، الهه ی عشق، و برشمردن زشتکاری‌های او. جنگ «گیلگمش» و «انکیدو»، با «نر گاو آسمان» و کشتن آن، و جشن و شادی برپا کردن. 7 - دومین رویای «انکیدو». بیماری «انکیدو». 8 - مرگ «انکیدو» و زاری «گیلگامش». شتاب کردن «گیلگمش» به جانب دشت، و گفتگو با نخجیرباز. 9 - سومین رویای «گیلگمش ». رو در راه نهادن «گیلگامش»، در جستجوی راز حیات جاویدان، و رسیدن وی به دروازه ی ظلمات، گفتگو با دروازه بانان، و به راه افتادن در دره‌ های تاریکی، راه نمودن «شِمِش» خدای آفتاب گیلگمش را به جانب «سی دوری سابی تو»، فرزانه ی کوهساران، نگهبان درخت زندگی، رسیدن گیلگمش به باغ خدایان. 10 - گفتگوی «گیلگمش»، و «سی دوری سابی تو»؛ و راهنمایی «سی دوری سابی تو»، خاتونی فرزانه، «گیلگمش» را، به جانب زورق «اوتنپیشتیم». دیدار گیلگمش و «اورشه نبی» کشتیبان؛ به کشتی نشستن، و گذشتن از آب‌های مرگ، دیدار «گیلگمش» و ئوت نه پیش تیم دور، «گیلگمش» را؛ و شکست «گیلگمش». آگاهی دادن «اوتنپیشتیم دور»، گیلگمش را، ار راز گیاه اعجازآمیز دریا. به دست آوردن «گیلگمش»، گیاه اعجازآمیز را، و خوردن مار گیاه را، و بازگشت «گیلگمش»، به شهر «اوروک». 11 - عزیمت «گیلگمش» به جهان زیرین خاک، و گفتگوی او با سایه ی «انکیدو». 12 - پایان کار گیلگمش. ا. شربیانی

  8. 4 out of 5

    یِکْ دَرون‌ْگَرآ

    اگر دنبال چیزی بیشتر از «کهنترین حماسهی بشری» میگردید، سلسله سخنرانیهای بهرام بیضایی(ج) را_ با عنوان افسانهی گیلگمش_ در یوتیوب گوش کنید اگر دنبال چیزی بیشتر از «کهن‌ترین حماسه‌ی بشری» می‌گردید، سلسله سخنرانی‌های بهرام بیضایی(ج) را_ با عنوان افسانه‌ی گیل‌گمش_ در یوتیوب گوش کنید

  9. 5 out of 5

    Paquita Maria Sanchez

    I've now read this dingdang poem at least four times. Though I read it in both high school and my sophomore year of college, the textbook versions I was dealing with must have been pretty darn tamed down, as I do not recall any overt references to sexual organs or Prima Nocta. Yeah, I definitely don't recall any sexysexy lines like "Open the hymen, perform the marriage act!" Maybe I was just phoning in the whole learning thing back then, or maybe the years since I stepped away from academia have I've now read this dingdang poem at least four times. Though I read it in both high school and my sophomore year of college, the textbook versions I was dealing with must have been pretty darn tamed down, as I do not recall any overt references to sexual organs or Prima Nocta. Yeah, I definitely don't recall any sexysexy lines like "Open the hymen, perform the marriage act!" Maybe I was just phoning in the whole learning thing back then, or maybe the years since I stepped away from academia have actually made me a better reader. Truthfully, though, in my recently solidified but long considered plan to attend graduate school has made the wash that was a lot of my last couple of years of college into quite an obstacle. Seriously, it's pretty amazing what a couple of bouts of "I'm not leaving this bed" level depression can do to a previously solid GPA. So I have dipped my little toe into the local community college waters in order to readjust to book learnin' and maybe show grad school committees that I actually can do well in school when my head's on straight. One of the courses I chose to enroll in is a 1000-level mythology course. Please keep in mind that it is a 1000-level mythology course. As one does in a 1000-level mythology course, I not only read the assigned prose version of Gilgamesh in the textbook, but also the scattered mess that is the translated tablets as contained in this Penguin Edition. Being a repenting academic sinner returning to the college fold, I may be leaning toward overzealousness just a whee bit — the other day, I actually caught myself wondering, even almost sorta fretting, about how I could manage to read both The Morte and all four volumes of The Once and Future King in time for the Arthurian Legends section of the course, a subject over which the entire assigned textbook reading is abooooouuuuut forty pages long. Anyway, I read the two versions of this guy, and I'm glad I did, as placing them side-by-side has definitely been...interesting. The first thing I noticed was how much it's downplayed in cozy textbook versions that Gilgamesh, in his rowdy, youthful, being-up-to-no-good phase, made a sport of raping women. Ha ha ha, taking women's virginities against their will in front of their husbands on their wedding nights, what a rascal! I swear that, aside from that one thing, he's a totally solid guy! The best! So, yeah, Gilgamesh, a.k.a. Rapeymess, gets his own bestie John the Savage — a guy named Enkidu who Gilgamesh respects since he not only almost kicks Gilgamesh's ass, but he murdered a fuckin' lion, y'all!, which we all know is a testament to manhood which holds up to this very day — to teach him humility and nurture his better side and flush his roofies down the toilet and maybe have sex with him a lot. Of course, in the prose version, Gilgamesh is really just painted as an asshole turned hero, and the friendship conveyed as completely platonic. Slight changes. Ever so slight changes. Another difference I noticed is that in the textbook version(s), when Ishtar makes a move on Gilgamesh, he brings up that she's basically a praying mantis who bites the heads off her lovers, sort of like the ancient goddess version of Fester's wife in Addams Family Values. In the tablets, however, it reads more like "naaaahh...you're a whore. I don't like whores." (Totally solid guy! The best!) There are many more such discrepancies, but it would be tedious to go through and list them all, or provide some snoozy summary of events. That would require a grade. Instead, I'll just point out that, between this and the Enuma Elish, I kinda can't wait to watch people maybe freak out about the fact that much of the Old Testament was essentially plagiarized from much older texts, which one assumes would nullify its authority as an "historical record," maybe causing some sort of Christian existential crisis, a crisis which will maybe be fascinating to witness in the online class format, meaning in frantic textspeak. (Oh, if you were wondering if kids these days say things like "lol" and "omg" in strictly graded forum posts, the answer is a vehement, flabbergasted yes, almost all of them. College is totally wasted on the young.) Anyway, this should be fun.

  10. 5 out of 5

    Entisar Radhi

    الآن وبعد أن قرأت الإلياذة والأوديسة وأنا في طور قراءة الشاهنامة أجد أنه من الصعب أن تملك شغاف قلبي ملحمة كـ " جلجامش " إنها الملحمة التي تجعلني ودون تبحر في الميثولوجيا أقول ليست إلا دعوة خالصة في البحث عن الحقيقة .. مازلت أذكر ألواح جلجامش و لوح الفيضان في زيارتي للمتحف البريطاني في لندن يا إلهي لماذا لم يشغلني الفضول لقراءة هذا الجمال طوال الأعوام الفائتة !! ملحمة جلجامش أقدم نوع من أدب الملاحم وأعرق ملحمة عرفتها الحضارات القديمة وكما يقول طه باقر " لو لم يأتنا من حضارة وادي الرافدين، من منجزا الآن وبعد أن قرأت الإلياذة والأوديسة وأنا في طور قراءة الشاهنامة أجد أنه من الصعب أن تملك شغاف قلبي ملحمة كـ " جلجامش " إنها الملحمة التي تجعلني ودون تبحر في الميثولوجيا أقول ليست إلا دعوة خالصة في البحث عن الحقيقة .. مازلت أذكر ألواح جلجامش و لوح الفيضان في زيارتي للمتحف البريطاني في لندن يا إلهي لماذا لم يشغلني الفضول لقراءة هذا الجمال طوال الأعوام الفائتة !! ملحمة جلجامش أقدم نوع من أدب الملاحم وأعرق ملحمة عرفتها الحضارات القديمة وكما يقول طه باقر " لو لم يأتنا من حضارة وادي الرافدين، من منجزاتها وعلومها وفنونها، شيء سوى هذه الملحمة، لكانت جديرة بأن تتبوأ تلك الحضارة مكانة سامية بين الحضارات العالمية القديمة " . "إن الآلهة قد استأثرت بالحياة وقدرت الموت علي نصيب البشرية تعالج هذه الملحمة ( حتمية الموت ) حتى لملك مثل جلجامش ثلثاه من مادة الآلهة الخالدة و ثلثه الباقي من البشر .. لغز الموت الذي شغل البشرية على مر الحضارات تذكرت وأنا أقرأ هذه الملحمة قول مصطفى محمود في كتابه لغز الموت : «ليس هنالك اغرب من الموت ..انه حادث غريب أن يصبح الشيء لا شيء .. ثياب الحداد و السرادق و الموسيقى و المباخر و الفراشون بملابسهم المسرحية و كأننا نتفرج على رواية لا تصدق و لا يبدو انها تصدق .. حتى المشيعيين الذين خلف الميت لايفكرون الا في المشوار و اولاد الميت لا يفكرون الا في الميراث و الحانوتيه لا يفكرون الا في حسابهم و المقرئون لا بفكرون الا في اجورهم» .. نعم يصير كل شيء إلى ذلك العالم السفلي الفقراء والملوك .. ولكن ما الجديد في ذلك فالموت حقيقة منذ أكثر من مليون عام ! إن هذه الملحمة تكشف لك حيرة النفس البشرية تجاه هذا اللغز الذي يقلقك كلما هرمت .. جلجامش بطل مدينة أوروك الأسطوري الذي لا يهزم من أثار رعب أهلها ولم يترك خطيبة البطل ولا ابنة المقاتل ، حتى خلقت له الآلهة ندّا يصارعه وهو أنكيدو الرجل المتوحش الذي تربي بين الحيوانات لكن هذا الصراع مالبث أن تحول إلى صداقة ومودة .. فيبدآن يحققان الانتصارات في كشف المجهول في غابات الأرز البعيدة وغلبة خمبابا الذي لا يهزم .. رغم هذا فتلك البطولات لم تكن القدر المحتوم من أن ينتزع أنكيدو من يدي جلجامش إلى العالم السفلي إلى الحقيقة التي فرّ منها جلجامش في البراري والقفار ليبحث عما يصدها عنه .. يقول أنكيدو في حلمه عن العالم السفلي " الناس كالطيور يلبسون أردية من الريش حتى الذين حكموا الأرض، والأنبياء والقديسون والوزراء، يأكلون الطين " " إن الحياة التي تبغي لن تجد " اختصرت صاحبة الحانة الملحمة عندي في هذه العبارة الموجعة لكن جلجامش المولع بالخلود لم ينهزم فطفق في الأرض يبحث عن اتونبشتم ليعرف سر الطوفان الذي أغرق الأرض في رحلة تنتهي بإدراك جلجامش أن لموت والنوم مقدران علي البشرية .. حتى نبتة الخلود التي غاص في الأعماق لاقتطافها سرقتها الأقدار منه ليعود من جديد لدياره .. وجدت في هذه الملحمة دعوة خالصة للبحث عن الحقيقة .. كجلجامش الذي لم يستسلم لفكرة حتمية الموت أمام جسد صديقه أنكييدو وقد أكلته الديدان بل ذهب يبحث عن سرّ الخلود ، و لم يستكن لصاحبة الحانة وسعى يبحث عن سر الطوفان العظيم الذي أغرق الأرض : أما أنت يا جلجامش فليكن كرشك مملوءا علي الدوام فكن فرحا مبتهجا مساء وأقم الأفراح في كل يوم من أيامك وأرقص وألعب مساء نهار وأجعل ثيابك نظيفة زاهية وأغسل رأسك واستحم في الماء ودلل الصغير الذي يمسك بيدك وأفرح الزوجة التي بين أحضانك وهذا هو نصيب البشرية رغم نصيحة صاحبة الحانة بعدم مواصلة البحث لكن روح جلجامش التواقة قطعت الفيافي وتحملت الصعاب بحثا عن الحقيقة ! أوليس لهذه الرحلة خلقنا ! هنا كثير مما يستحق التأمل .....

  11. 5 out of 5

    Alex

    Here's the first book in the world, written around let’s say 2000 BC in Uruk, which is now Iraq, so when I set out to read all of the books in order a while back this was the first one I read. So it's nice that it's very good. It’s about this king, Gilgamesh, who’s a dick. He’s a terrible king, a total tyrant. His best buddy Enkidu, on the other hand, is your archetypical noble savage guy, an innocent wild man. Enkidu gets civilized via the traditional method of having a sex priestess fuck him fo Here's the first book in the world, written around let’s say 2000 BC in Uruk, which is now Iraq, so when I set out to read all of the books in order a while back this was the first one I read. So it's nice that it's very good. It’s about this king, Gilgamesh, who’s a dick. He’s a terrible king, a total tyrant. His best buddy Enkidu, on the other hand, is your archetypical noble savage guy, an innocent wild man. Enkidu gets civilized via the traditional method of having a sex priestess fuck him for a week straight, which totally works. And then they have adventures! There are lots of things in Gilgamesh that will pop up in books later. There are a lot of weird echoes of it in the Bible. The flood myth is here, as it is in most cultures, and actually kindof a better version than the Bible’s. There’s a journey to the underworld, which will show up again in Homer and in Dante. There’s a monster to fight, and - as in Beowulf - there’s some ambiguity about how monstrous Humbaba is. He’s just trying to do his thing, but Gilgamesh and Enkidu have to go hunt him down because they’re such badasses. This arrogance will have terrible consequences for them. The influence on later literature isn't direct: we lost this poem for most of history. It was only found again in the late 1800s. So it's influence by way of echoes, if anything, although the Biblical references are hard to deny. There's an additional tablet XII, probably added later, that makes explicit the gay subtext running through the poem. Here's the translation from Stephen Mitchell:“[My friend, the] penis that you touched so your heart rejoiced, grubs devour [(it) … like an] old garment. [My friend, the crotch that you] touched so your heart rejoiced, it is filled with dust [like a crack in the ground.]” This, yes, amounts to history's first slashfic, but you're likely to think the poem is gay enough without it; Gilgamesh and Enkidu are constantly kissing and holding hands. More on that here. Gilgamesh is more complicated than I expected it to be. It’s dark, haunting, unsettling. The poet Rilke called it “The epic of the fear of death.” The ending is not happy. It’s weird and it’s pretty wonderful. It’s not terribly long, so it's not a huge commitment. I like Stephen Mitchell’s version.

  12. 4 out of 5

    peiman-mir5 rezakhani

    دوستانِ گرانقدر، سفارش میکنم که این داستانِ بسیار زیبا و خواندنی را بخوانید و در این افسانه اندیشه کنید با خواندن افسانۀ «گیلگمش» به نکاتِ زیادی پی برده و متوجه میشوید که بسیاری از داستان هایِ خیالی پیامبران و یهودیان خرافاتی و تازیان، از این افسانۀ اسطوره ای برگرفته شده است متولد شدن «انکیدو» پهلوانِ بزرگ، از خاک و آبِ دهانِ خداوند... شبیه به داستان موهومِ «آدم و حوا» میباشد.. و باز هم نشان میدهد که تمامی ادیان بر اساس افسانه هایِ ایرانیان نوشته شده است سفرِ «گیلگمش» به همراه «انکیدو» ما را به یاد دوستانِ گرانقدر، سفارش میکنم که این داستانِ بسیار زیبا و خواندنی را بخوانید و در این افسانه اندیشه کنید با خواندن افسانۀ «گیلگمش» به نکاتِ زیادی پی برده و متوجه میشوید که بسیاری از داستان هایِ خیالی پیامبران و یهودیان خرافاتی و تازیان، از این افسانۀ اسطوره ای برگرفته شده است متولد شدن «انکیدو» پهلوانِ بزرگ، از خاک و آبِ دهانِ خداوند... شبیه به داستان موهومِ «آدم و حوا» میباشد.. و باز هم نشان میدهد که تمامی ادیان بر اساس افسانه هایِ ایرانیان نوشته شده است سفرِ «گیلگمش» به همراه «انکیدو» ما را به یادِ سفرِ "موسی" و "هارون" می اندازد... در آن داستان "یهوو" خدای یهودیان به آنها فرمان میدهد و در این افسانه «شمش» خدایِ آفتاب به «گیلگمش» و «انکیدو» فرمان داده و آنها را هدایت میکند... و جالب این است که تازیانِ بیابانی واژهٔ "شمس" به معنای خورشید را از خدای آفتاب "شمش" وام گرفته و تقلید کرده اند اما نکتۀ جالب در این افسانهٔ خواندنی و زیبا، این است که: خداوند هیچ قدرتی بر روی زمین ندارد.. و وقتی در می یابد که "هومبه به" (خون بابا) در جنگل مقدسِ سدر، گناه و ستم میکند، مانندِ خدای مسلمانها و تازیان "اللهِ اکبر" عذاب نازل نمیکند.. بلکه به «گیلگمش» و «انکیدو» فرمان میدهد تا به جنگ او رفته و او را هلاک سازند... خودش هیچ دخالتی ندارد ***************************************************** امیدوارم از خواندنِ این افسانهٔ بسیار قدیمی و باستانی، لذت ببرید «پیروز باشید و ایرانی»

  13. 5 out of 5

    Michael

    This epic mythological tale was a surprisingly fun read overall and a powerful portrait of the power of male friendship and grief at its loss. Written about 1,700BC, it stars a king of the ancient Mesopotamian king of Uruk living around 2,700BC who is arrogant and unjust to his people. For example, every new bride is his for the bedding before the bridegroom has his joy. The people pray to the gods for relief from his tyranny, and in answer a temple prostitute is sent into the wilds to bring bac This epic mythological tale was a surprisingly fun read overall and a powerful portrait of the power of male friendship and grief at its loss. Written about 1,700BC, it stars a king of the ancient Mesopotamian king of Uruk living around 2,700BC who is arrogant and unjust to his people. For example, every new bride is his for the bedding before the bridegroom has his joy. The people pray to the gods for relief from his tyranny, and in answer a temple prostitute is sent into the wilds to bring back a soulmate for Gilgamesh. The wild man, Enkidu, has been living in innocence among the animals and knows nothing of civilization. The priestess makes love to him for days on end and by such means is he seduced to her quest. After a period of competitive interactions, including wrestling matches, the king and tamed monster become bosom buddies and probably lovers. The goddess Ishtar takes a fancy to Enkidu, who rejects her advances and promises of heavenly rewards, backed up by the king heaping many insults on her head. In revenge, she gets the top gods to lend her the ferocious Bull of Heaven Peace to kill the king and his buddy. A comic scene of their quick disposal of the beast ensues. Peace and justice begins to bloom in the kingdom. But Gilgamesh just has to express of superman role by finding a monster to slay. He persuades Enkidu to join him on a mission to kill the giant Humbaba, who has long been tasked by a god to guard a sacred cedar forest. Enkidu advises the king against such a foolish challenge, both from its danger and affront to the god. But his loyalty and love of the king leads him to buck but up his friend’s courage and turn the battle into success at the point of disaster. This seals Enkidu’s doom. When sickness and death is brought down on him, Gilgamesh’s grief seems to hold no bounds, much in the vein of Achilles written 1,000 years later: Then he veiled Enkidu’s face like a bride’s. Like an eagle Gilgamensh circled around him, he paced in front of him, back and forth, like a lioness whose cubs are trapped in a pit, he tore out clumps of his hair, tore off his magnificent robes as though they were cursed. In his despair, Gilgamesh is tormented by intimations of his own mortality. He is driven to leave his kingdom on a long, perilous quest to find the one man the gods have blessed with immortality, Utnapishtim, and learn his secret for gaining that status. All he gets for his efforts is platitudes, a diversionary tale of Noah’s Ark (cribbed much later as a lesson for the Torah), and a special healing plant, which the king loses by neglect to a snake on the way back home. At the end, his arrival at the beautifully walled city of Uruk is described identical to the beginning verses of the epic. This version of the tale was composed by Mitchell as a synthesis of prior translations and with invented insertions for all the missing sections lost among the collection of clay tablets inscribed with Sumerian cuneiform as discovered at the late date of 1853 in a dig at Ninevah. Half of the volume is a delightful commentary on the details of the epic and interpretations about their meanings and significance. Quite the eye-opener for me, having always presumed ancient tales to comprise very simplistic analogies about human nature and the conflicts between good and evil. A nice complement to similar conclusions reached from recent reads of the Iliad and Odyssey.

  14. 5 out of 5

    Richard Derus

    BkC2) THE EPIC OF GILGAMESH: Not sorry I read it, but what a slog. The Book Report: Evil King Gilgamesh is hatefully cruel to the citizens of Uruk, his kingdom. The gods, hearing the cries of his oppressed people, send Gilgamesh a companion, Enkidu. (Yes, that's right, a man.) Gilgamesh falls so in love with Enkidu, and has such big fun playing around and exploring the world and generally raising hell with Enkidu that his people are left alone to get on with...whatever it was that they weren't al BkC2) THE EPIC OF GILGAMESH: Not sorry I read it, but what a slog. The Book Report: Evil King Gilgamesh is hatefully cruel to the citizens of Uruk, his kingdom. The gods, hearing the cries of his oppressed people, send Gilgamesh a companion, Enkidu. (Yes, that's right, a man.) Gilgamesh falls so in love with Enkidu, and has such big fun playing around and exploring the world and generally raising hell with Enkidu that his people are left alone to get on with...whatever it was that they weren't allowed to do before. And there was much rejoicing *yay* No one is allowed to be too happy for too long. Gilgamesh learns this when he royally screws up by refusing to screw goddess Ishtar because he's busy having fun with Enkidu. It is **NEVER** a good idea to turn down nookie from a goddess. She gets her knickers in a twist and decides that, if he's gonna be *that* way about it, he's not gonna have his boy-toy either! THEN the boys do the colossally stupid thing of stealing Ishtar's bull, and it's lights out for Enkidu. Gilgamesh's grief, to his peoples' relief, sends him on a quest for immortality. Which, frankly, makes not one whit of sense. Grief, in my extensive experience, makes one want oblivion, not eternity. Well, whatever, not me writin' the story, so off goes Gilgamesh to have more adventures. My Review: A whole bunch of the Old Testament is lifted from this book. Amazingly whole and entire, too. Methuselah, Noah...all here first. It's a slog to read, like the Bible, but it's fascinating if kept to smaller doses. I had no faith for it to rock, but it might rock a religious person's sacred book fantasy pretty hard. Highly instructive is the treatment of a strong love between men as perfectly boringly ordinary. No sexual component is implied in their relationship, but go find me a more loving relationship in sacred literature. Their closeness was so complete that it threatened the gods. But, crucially, it was the *CLOSENESS* that threatened the gods, not any inherent evil. The men loved each other so completely that there was no room for gods, which pisses gods off somethin' fierce. Food for thought, homophobes who think Leviticus is right on *this* count.

  15. 4 out of 5

    Ahmed Ibrahim

    قيمة هذه الملحمة تكْمُن في قِدَمِها أكثر من أي شيء. الخلود، حلم البشر الأبدي، يقومون بأي شيء في سبيل الحصول عليه.. وفي هذه القصة سيسعى جلجامش للخلود بعد أن يرى صديقه العزيز أكيدو من بعد قوته الخارقة يأكل الدود جسده بعد موته. الأساطير القديمة من أكثر الأشياء متعة بالنسبة إلىّ.. محلمة جلجامش عندما عُثر على الاثني عشر لوحًا كلّها كان هناك الكثير من الأبيات الناقصة من الثقوب المنتشرة في الألواح فافقدتني هذه الأجزاء من الملحمة -بالذات الطويلة منها والتي تصل لخمسين بيتًا- جزء من الاستمتاع بالملحمة. ربما قيمة هذه الملحمة تكْمُن في قِدَمِها أكثر من أي شيء. الخلود، حلم البشر الأبدي، يقومون بأي شيء في سبيل الحصول عليه.. وفي هذه القصة سيسعى جلجامش للخلود بعد أن يرى صديقه العزيز أكيدو من بعد قوته الخارقة يأكل الدود جسده بعد موته. الأساطير القديمة من أكثر الأشياء متعة بالنسبة إلىّ.. محلمة جلجامش عندما عُثر على الاثني عشر لوحًا كلّها كان هناك الكثير من الأبيات الناقصة من الثقوب المنتشرة في الألواح فافقدتني هذه الأجزاء من الملحمة -بالذات الطويلة منها والتي تصل لخمسين بيتًا- جزء من الاستمتاع بالملحمة. ربما عوض الجزء الذي التقى فيه جلجامش بأوتو-نبشتم ما خَرِب من الأجزاء الأولى من الملحمة.. فأوتو-نبشتم هو الإله الذي يبحث عنه جلجامش ليخبره كيف ينال الخلود، لأنه جعل الآلهة قديمًا بعد أن كان بشرًا تمنحه الخلود.. و أوتو-نبشتم هو الناجي من الطوفان الذي دمر البشر، وهو من يعادل في الديانات سيدنا نوح، ففي الملحمة يسرد عليه ما حدث في هذا الطوفان.. وهذا الجزء كان الأفضل بالنسبة إلىّ. ملحمة خالدة، اعتبرتها مصالحة من مجلة الدوحة بعد العدد الأخير الذي كان به رواية التلميذ لـبول بورجيه.. كما أن المجلة نفسها متميزة هذا الشهر وتحتوي على بعض المقالات الرائعة.

  16. 4 out of 5

    Greg

    I think I read this in class once, I don't remember it at all though. I wrote something stupid in the margin though that if I saw in someone else's book I'd think they were a moron, so I guess this proves I'm a moron, or was, or something. This version is a prose version, something I think is silly, I mean I've made fun of people (behind their backs) who buy the prose version of Homer instead of a verse version, so now I'm going to snicker behind my own back. Except I didn't buy this, or I did, I think I read this in class once, I don't remember it at all though. I wrote something stupid in the margin though that if I saw in someone else's book I'd think they were a moron, so I guess this proves I'm a moron, or was, or something. This version is a prose version, something I think is silly, I mean I've made fun of people (behind their backs) who buy the prose version of Homer instead of a verse version, so now I'm going to snicker behind my own back. Except I didn't buy this, or I did, but it's the version that comes in the Norton Anthology of Literature, volume 1. Why would they put this version in? I don't know. Anyway, I guess I'm supposed to rate this higher than three stars, since it's really old and it's about an adventure. Since the story is about five thousand years old and it's the earliest known piece of Western Literature I should give it five stars, I mean, do you think whoever wrote this ever thought they would be given the same rating for their timeless piece of work as a Daredevil graphic novel by someone a few thousand years in the future? Anyway, this story is about a King who is sort of a dick, and everyone is afraid of him. Then a Goddess teaches this guy who has lived the woods his whole life, and who thinks he's really tough to go mess with the King. The King and the tough hippie fight, and then they stop fighting and become best friends. Bored they decide to go kill this other guy who lives in the woods, he's a tough guy too, but he really likes the woods, and feels pain when trees are cut down and then gets really angry. So the King and his friend trounce off to find the keeper of the woods and kill him. On the way they walk up mountains, hold hands and then sleep together, I'm warning anyone reading this, it's easy to read some man on man action going on in the background. Then they find the woods guy, they fight, the woods guy puts up a good fight, then begs for his life, and this mighty King thinks about sparring it but then makes his friend kill him. Next, a bit in the future, the friend dies. The King gets really sad and because he's a self-centered dick he decides the best way to mourn his friend is to have ever lasting life (what?). He goes out to find it, throws a temper tantrum and destroys a poor guys boat, but he gets remorseful when he finds out it's the only boat that can get him to the land where eternal life is handed out, so he helps rig up away for the boat to take him where he needs to go. So the King gets where he's going, and the guy who has eternal life says you can't have it, but I'll tell you a story. Mr. Live Forever tells the story of the Great Flood, and the King surprisingly doesn't get angry and break something. At the end out it, probably out of fear that the King will go ballistic at some point, tells the King he can live forever if he can stay awake for a week. The King tries but ends up sleeping a week instead. When he wakes up Mr. Live Forevers wife tells him to go home and breed with his wife (i.e., get over your boyfriend and get to work humping the lil' misses). And the King does, but not before finding out about a magical flower that will turn anyone young again. The King finds the magical flower, but a snake steals it from him. The King is sad again because he won't live forever, but then he goes home and he writes about himself, the Epic of the kind of dickish King who wanted to live forever but didn't.

  17. 4 out of 5

    سمر محمد

    - رحلة ممتعة وشيقة جداً تعود بك إلى التاريخ القديم وخاصة تاريخ بلاد الرافدين لتتبع "أوديسة العراق القديم" ملحمة جلجامش أو كلكامش التي تعتبر من أقدم أنواع أدب الملاحم البطولية في جميع الحضارات كما أنها أطول وأكمل ملحمه عرفتها حضارات الشرق القديم - ملحمة جلجامش الملحمة هي قصة شعرية طويلة مليئة بالأحداث قد تحكي حكاية شعب او حكايات بطولية وقد تدخل فيها الأساطير بشكل كبير أما جلجامش فهو الملك السومري الخامس الذي حكم " أوروك " بعد الطوفان العظيم والذي يعني إسمه "المحارب الذي في المقدمة" أو "الرجل الذي - رحلة ممتعة وشيقة جداً تعود بك إلى التاريخ القديم وخاصة تاريخ بلاد الرافدين لتتبع "أوديسة العراق القديم" ملحمة جلجامش أو كلكامش التي تعتبر من أقدم أنواع أدب الملاحم البطولية في جميع الحضارات كما أنها أطول وأكمل ملحمه عرفتها حضارات الشرق القديم - ملحمة جلجامش الملحمة هي قصة شعرية طويلة مليئة بالأحداث قد تحكي حكاية شعب او حكايات بطولية وقد تدخل فيها الأساطير بشكل كبير أما جلجامش فهو الملك السومري الخامس الذي حكم " أوروك " بعد الطوفان العظيم والذي يعني إسمه "المحارب الذي في المقدمة" أو "الرجل الذي سيكون نواة لشجرة جديدة" الحقائق التاريخية عنه تعتبر قليلة إلى حد ما (ثلثيه إله وثلثه الأخر بشر) كان ظالماً كما شكاه أهل مدينته في بداية الملحمة وعلى الرغم من ذلك كان يوصف بانه ( جميل وحكيم) ! تبدأ الرحلة مع طه باقر بمقدمة مميزة موجزة تتعرف من خلالها على أدب العراق القديم ويؤكد من خلالها على أن أدب العراق هو من أقدم الآداب التي عرفها العالم القديم ويقوم بمقارنته مع أدب الحضارات القديمة المشهورة ( كمصر و اليونان والهند وإيران وغيرها ) كما يعرض أهم الميزات العامة التي تميز بها أدب بلاد الرافدين القديم ليكون لديك صورة واضحة عنه بصورة مبسطة وغير معقدة لتكون على إستعداد للخطوة التالية ألا وهي التعريف بالملحمة ومكانتها في أدب الملاحم وكيف كانت انتشارها في العالم القديم وليس فقط في بلاد الرافدين كما يُعرفك بـ جلجامش ليأخذك تدريجياً ليحدثك عن المعاني التي تضمنتها تلك الملحمة والتي جعلت لها مكانه مميزة عبر العصور وهذه ميزة قوية في الكتاب أنه لم يجعلك تدخل لتقرأ النصوص مباشرة فتفقد الكثير من جمالها لجهلك عندها بالخلفية التي تؤهلك لقراءتها بل وللإستمتاع بها أيضاً وربما ستقوم بقراءة تلك المقدمة قبل قراءة النصوص وبعد قراءتها كما فعلت لتستفيد أكثر وأكثر :) عندما تبدأ رحتلك بين نصوص الملحمة ستكتشف روعة الترجمة حقاً ومتعتها وتسرقك تماماً لعالمها وتجعلك منتبه لكل كلمه فلا يصيبك ملل او فتور ولن تستطيع التفكير إلا في الأحداث التي تقرأها ويجب أن تقرا الهوامش ولا تفوتها لانها توضح الكثير من الأحداث أما عن الملحمة فهي أولاً عن تلك الصداقة التي نشأت بعد العداء والتي كانت بداية كل شئ بداية صداقة استمرت لتثمر عن مغامرات مختلفة لتنتهي بفقدان الصديق والبكاء عليه ليبدأ المغزى الرئيسي من هذه الملحمة صراع الإنسان الدائم وخوفه من الموت ليبحث بكل إصرار عن الخلود وهذا الخوف الذي نجده في كلمات جلجامش بعد موت صديقه ونرى كذلك الإصرار على الوصول للخلود عندما تحدث مع (الرجل العقرب) والذي كان يُثنيه عن المسير فرد عليه جلجامش قائلاً : " عزمت على أن أذهب ولو بالحزن والالام وفي القر والحر والحسرات والبكاء" ياله من إصرار عجيب !! هل هو إصرار بسبب صدمته في فقدان صديقه؟؟ أو أنه الخوف التي تربع داخله من الموت عندما اقترب منه ؟ إستمتعت جداً بهذه الرحلة الرائعة والتي لم اتوقعها وبالتأكيد سأقرأها مرة اخرى

  18. 5 out of 5

    Mahdi Lotfi

    حماسه ی گیلگمش در خط میخی به طور ناقص برای ما باقی مانده. غالب قطعات آن در کاوشهای کویونجیک، محلنینوای قدیم، به دست آمده و جزئی از کتابخانه ی بزرگ الواح گلی پادشاه آشور، آشور بانیپال، را تشکیل میداده.اصل داستان بسیار قدیمی است و بایستی، در دایره ی فرهنگی شنعاری - اکدی به وجود آمده باشد. شنعارها(سومرها )قبل از بابلیها در سرزمین دجله و فرات مسکن داشتند و خط میخی را آنها اختراع کردهاند. متن اولیه یداستان از روی قراین باید در 2400 سال قبل از مبدأ تاریخ تنظیم شده باشد. سپس با خط میخی و زبان ادبی (شنع حماسه ی گیلگمش در خط میخی به طور ناقص برای ما باقی مانده. غالب قطعات آن در کاوش‏های کویونجیک، محل‏نینوای قدیم، به دست آمده و جزئی از کتابخانه ی بزرگ الواح گلی پادشاه آشور، آشور بانیپال، را تشکیل می‏داده.اصل داستان بسیار قدیمی است و بایستی، در دایره ی فرهنگی شنعاری - اکدی به وجود آمده باشد. شنعارها(سومرها )قبل از بابلی‏ها در سرزمین دجله و فرات مسکن داشتند و خط میخی را آنها اختراع کرده‏اند. متن اولیه ی‏داستان از روی قراین باید در 2400 سال قبل از مبدأ تاریخ تنظیم شده باشد. سپس با خط میخی و زبان ادبی (شنعاری- اکدی )به بابلی‏ها میراث رسیده دائم از نو تکرار شده، تزیینات تاره یی یافته، و ظاهرا به ضرر ماهیت داستان، زوایدنجومی، تاریخ‏های معاصر و تمایلات عامیانه بر آن افزوده گشته است. تا این که در قرن ششم پیش از میلاد با حشو وزواید بسیاری در دولت آشور بر الواح گل پخته نوشته شده. زوایدی که داستان سرایان بعدی بر آن افزوده‏اند، عظمت‏سادگی ان را خراب کرده جای تأسف است که این حماسه را، که در سادگی و عظمت بایست در زمره ی مهم‏ترین آثار ادبی جهانی حساب‏ شود، جز اهل فن دیگران کم‏تر می‏شناسند. ارزش داستان گیلگمش می‏تواند چنان که بایست تقدیر شود، اگر موضوع‏ تاریخی، چنان چه نیچه می‏گوید، به معنای بنای یادبود به کار رود، یعنی با آزادی کامل تخیل در قالب واحدی ریخته‏ شود

  19. 5 out of 5

    Hazal Çamur

    Günümüz ahlak kurallarının ötesinde, kendi döneminin örf ve adetleriyle bezeli, mitoloji kavramının mihenk taşı. Yaşama dair her şey var bu destanda. Bunun yanı sıra, İş Bankası Kültür Yayınları'nin özenli çalışmasıyla döneme dair harika bilgiler de cabası. Ama en çok, tüm o bilgilerin sonunda çevirmen Sait Maden'in Amerikalılar'ın Irak'a yaptığı bombardımanlarla bu tarihe dair daha başka bir şey öğrenemez hale geldiğimiz söylemesi koydu bana. Gılgamış harika bir destan, ama onu yazanla aynı insa Günümüz ahlak kurallarının ötesinde, kendi döneminin örf ve adetleriyle bezeli, mitoloji kavramının mihenk taşı. Yaşama dair her şey var bu destanda. Bunun yanı sıra, İş Bankası Kültür Yayınları'nin özenli çalışmasıyla döneme dair harika bilgiler de cabası. Ama en çok, tüm o bilgilerin sonunda çevirmen Sait Maden'in Amerikalılar'ın Irak'a yaptığı bombardımanlarla bu tarihe dair daha başka bir şey öğrenemez hale geldiğimiz söylemesi koydu bana. Gılgamış harika bir destan, ama onu yazanla aynı insanoğlu bizim daha fazlasını öğrenmemize engel oldu.

  20. 4 out of 5

    Alienor ✘ French Frowner ✘

    Admittedly I found George Smith's story more interesting than the book itself (fuck the British Museum, really) but hey I'm always here for anything that proves the Bible's travesty, so. (yes, I'm writing this ridiculous 3-lines 'review' before diving into my course material otherwise I would most likely babble literary 'truths' and that's not what my GR account is about isn't it)

  21. 4 out of 5

    Lᴀʏᴀ Rᴀɴɪ

    Are you mongrels ready to talk about Gilgamesh? Okay, let's talk about the king of heroes then! Embarrassingly enough, I myself only discovered Gilgamesh last year when I was teaching World History to a few of my students, and one of the lessons was about ancient civilizations. For a story that is considered to be a very old one--if not one of the oldest ever recorded in human history-- The Epic of Gilgamesh sure retained a rather comfortable status of obscurity, mostly because we're more incli Are you mongrels ready to talk about Gilgamesh? Okay, let's talk about the king of heroes then! Embarrassingly enough, I myself only discovered Gilgamesh last year when I was teaching World History to a few of my students, and one of the lessons was about ancient civilizations. For a story that is considered to be a very old one--if not one of the oldest ever recorded in human history-- The Epic of Gilgamesh sure retained a rather comfortable status of obscurity, mostly because we're more inclined to talk about the Egyptians, and the Romans and Greeks, mythology-wise. We know about Hercules, the gods and goddesses of Olympus, and Cleopatra, and cursed pharaohs and haunting mummies because they are basic Hollywood fodder--but we have yet to have anyone adapt the story of Gilgamesh on screen. And IT'S A COSMICALLY UNFAIR INJUSTICE. The closest thing we get in the meantime is a re-imagined version of him in the Japanese light novel and anime Fate/Zero where I absolutely fucking devoured him; excusing the fact that his appearance is racially inaccurate but hot damn, the golden-haired and ivory-skinned magnificence that is F/Z's Gilgamesh is to die for! He indisputably brought sexy back, okay? It's this version of the epic hero that has gotten me so intrigued, and so I decided to read the actual canon itself--by not reading it because I have other books scheduled. That's what audiobooks are for, yo! With only four tracks, each running thirty-four minutes or so, my experiences for The Epic of Gilgamesh is nothing short of magical and hilarious! I know what you're thinking: "Oh, a classic, that's great! But it's translated from an ancient language so the prose has to be dry and droll and I don't have time to read about it because I have my Fifty Shades and my other raunchy romance novels. Who wants to read about some dead king from Mesopotamia anyway?" And you know what, you're right except for the parts about the prose being dry, and that you read Fifty Shades because if you are then yeah, you're wrong in the head. I will say though that hearing someone else read me this epic is so much more satisfying. So why should you read/listen to The Epic of Gilgamesh? Here's why: [1] It's an adventure tale about two guys going on a journey and exercising feats of strength that would rival gods. They also have awesome chemistry. A selling point I liked is that this epic is sort of a coming-of-age story too (although Gilgamesh is probably in his mid-twenties to early thirties, I think) but considering his arrogance and grand sense of entitlement, Gilgamesh acts like some teenage boy at times, and there is a lot of room for emotional maturity and development which does happen by the nearing end of this epic, so that's nice. [2] The depiction of Gilgamesh and Enkidu, his loyal companion, is arguably the first recorded 'bromance' in human history! Ungirdle your loins, ladies, if you're into that sort of stuff like I am. Homoerotic subtext is to be had (sometimes even hilariously at that), but I'm also okay with the simple 'guy love' aspect shared by these two because it's truly through Enkidu that Gilgamesh learned humility, heroic sacrifice, and the value of friendship. [3] Gilgamesh's personal growth and eventual acceptance of his mortality are the central themes of this enthralling epic. No one has grown as much as Gilgamesh has after a few instances of rude awakening and losses along the way. He is a mighty, arrogant king who has finally learned how to be a good shepherd to his flock/subjects in his kingdom Uruk, as well as appreciate the simple pleasures in life. He basically coveted immortality but achieved it by letting such false ambitions go because in return, he does become immortalized through this epic. It was only recently when the epic's tablets were finalized for what is widely known as its canon. You see, there have been so many translations, considering there are a handful versions of the tablets where this story was taken from. The audiobook recording I listened to has four tracks and they're easy enough to digest. The narrator sounded like a grandfather sitting by your bedside and telling you stories, and he has a firmness to his voice and diction that would keep you interested. I particularly enjoyed some offhand and colorful descriptions about the most banal things present in the narrative, and would jeer and make varied noises of approval and disgust; sometimes I'd even downright start talking over the narration when something catches my ear. So it was pretty much an interactive experience for me. Here is a succinct summary of each track: * TRACK ONE: The Bold and the Beautiful Gilgamesh is a sexy, strong and confident king of the pristine and majestic city of Uruk. He's also two-thirds divine and one-third mortal. His mother is a goddess named Ninsun (whom he is in pretty close commune with for the first part of the tale), and his father is a priest-king with magical abilities named Lugalbanda. Fiercely loved by his people and very much favored by other Sumerian gods, Gilgamesh is basically hot shit and comes from the most privileged background you can imagine. The problem with Gilgi is that he knows he's hot shit and he's not afraid to reap the benefits of that. The story opens with pretty much how Jane Austen opens Emma --by describing the seemingly flawless qualities of the main character whom we all suppose to root for and sort of despise along the way as well. After listing down Gilgi's positive qualities, the story then continues with the bitching and moaning of his subjects in Uruk, citing that a king should be a shepherd who guides his flock but Gilgi has been slacking off. Not only is he not doing his job --he's also being a terrible douchebag. He's the Barney Stinson of the ancient world He essentially beats the crap out of any man who is capable of fighting him just to prove he's a badass; and then sleeps with every woman he can get his hands on. No nobleman's wife or peasant's daughter is safe. My personal favorite pastime of his is when he devirginizes brides on their honeymoon before their husbands even get a chance to lay with them. No one can say 'HELL NO' to Gilgamesh because's he's a sexy demigod king who takes and takes and takes. But the people of Uruk decided that they have had it, and complained to the gods, "Yo, you made the damn fool, now go create his equal!" And his equal was no other than a creature made of clay and he was named Enkidu. There was only one problem with his creation--he's a mindless beast who hangs around jungle animals because he believed he is one of them. To solve this problem, someone sent a harlot named Shamat who apparently can turn any beast into a man by educating him in her "womanly arts"...if you know what I mean. Oh, you don't, actually, because Enkidu's education supposedly (and without exaggeration, if the text is to be believed) lasted for an ENTIRE WEEK. Even I did not see that coming. I love the passages where Shamat was instructed to fully immerse him in her womanly arts so he will forget his affinity with the jungle animals and recognize that he is a man who is bestowed with sexy times. Shamat the harlot was very caring too, and helped Enkidu internalize his consciousness as a human being. This fully registers when he catches wind about a proud king in Uruk who is very powerful and unbeatable. Enkidu was understandably curious and intrigued to know more about this king, and Shamat encouraged him to confront said dude since Enkidu expressed that he wanted to meet Gilgamesh because he wants to fight him--but, more than anything, he was also seeking a friend. And as kismet would have it, Enkidu meets Gilgamesh; Gilgamesh who was just about to enter a hut to sexy-times a virgin bride. Enkidu literally puts a foot between Gilgi and the hut he is about to enter and the deity-king was not pleased to be interrupted. Enkidu who is shacking up with a harlot (hey, it's monogamous!) and has a job as a night watchman back in the farm, obviously disapproves of how Gilgi sluts it up with other men's wives. So a fight ensued where they beat each other to a pulp. And then they kissed and became BFFs. This was a momentous meeting, according to Mommy Ninsun and she is happy to adopt Enkidu as her son. To further bro-it up with Enkidu, Gilgamesh suggests that they go the Cedar Forest to defeat and kill Humbaba, a monstrous demigod. The elders and his advisors were not happy and a collective face-palm ensued when Gilgi was undeterred and even asked for Mommy Ninsun's blessing for the journey. She gave it, and tasked Enkidu to protect her darling child at all times. The sun-god Shamash accompanies them too as some deus-ex-machina insurance or something. And the bromance commences! * TRACK TWO: The Young and the Restless The travel buddies spend most of their time hiking the woods and sleeping. Gilgamesh received a total of five ominous dreams which provided symbolic imagery that hint to the deadliness of Humbaba. He was legitimately scared for the first time in his life but Enkidu was chill and dismisses the dreams. He reassures his friend that if there is terror in his heart, he should get rid of it. Self-doubt will defeat him and backing out from a fight will not give him peace. So Gilgi pushes on and confronts said Humbaba who is borne of the mountain and never had parents to raise him. The gist that I got from their trash talk is basically Humbaba stressing that being a strong force of nature is all that he is and that Gilgamesh has other things going for him so he should just leave Humbaba alone. For a while Gilgamesh looked like he was going to cave but right before that, Humbaba was insulting Enkidu and claimed he will disembowel Gilgi and feed him to the birds if they don't go away. It angered Enkidu who always had this streak of self-righteousness to him, and demanded that Gilgi should kill the bastard. Gilgi obliged right after their other companion Shamash captured Humbaba so he won't escape. So they killed him, chopped down some big tree and fashioned it into a raft, and then the BFFs started to ride through the Euphrates river to get home, taking Humbaba's decapitated head with them. Some time during the journey, Gilgamesh was cleaning himself in the river and because he is sex on a stick now naked and wet, the goddess of desire Ishtar took notice of him and offered him grand things including herself if he accepts her proposal to be her new husband. Flattered as he may be, Gilgi spurned her advances anyway and listed the reasons why he ain't tapping that fine ass (and I assume to the sound of Enkidu beat-boxing because, maaaan, he really let her down hard). He not only went into detail about her past lovers who all met cruel fates by her hand, he also began to describe who she is as a goddess, woman and lover with this passage: I have a feeling that mommy dearest Ninsun had warned Gilgamesh in advance not to fall for Ishtar, and she probably explained to him exactly why, hence his recital of all those on-point soul-crushing truth nuggets about said goddess of desire. In the audiobook I listened to, I preferred the translation, "You are the sandal that trips the wearer". I can't help but giggle at such a light-hearted insult. Gilgamesh's point is simply that she is too proud and vengeful to warrant his affection and loyalty, and he's got better options waiting for him (hell, he can have a pick of the virgins in his kingdom) and that also includes bromancing it up with Enkidu which he would rather do anyway. In case his blatant repugnance of her wasn't clear enough, this happens: right after getting rejected, Ishtar beseeches the help of her father Anu to send Gugalanna, the Bull of Heaven, to avenge her. She blackmailed daddy by claiming she will cause the zombie apocalypse if he doesn't comply to her wishes (apparently she has a power to raise the undead or some shit). Anu gave in to his bratty princess of a daughter and so the Bull followed Gilgamesh and Enkidu back to Uruk where it caused a widespread devastation. To save the city before it falls into ruins, the BFFs dispose Gulganna using guy love and team work, and offer the bull's heart to Shamash, probably to show him that the duo didn't need his divine assistance to kill the damn thing. Ishtar cries like a little bitch and--to silence her--GILGAMESH THROWS ONE OF THE LEGS OF THE BULL AT HER FACE! And he does it with this killer line: "That is the closest thing you will get to me touching you!" That's right--with a bull's leg to the face!! [READ THE REST OF THE SUMMARIES HERE] * I'm not going to spoil how The Epic of Gilgamesh ends and will instead leave you with this cliffhanger, urging you to pick up a copy of this when you do find the time. My final thoughts about this story are simply this: It's a truly stirring and transcendent piece of literature. It is definitely the very first story in human history that spawned all other stories since which concern man's existential crisis about life and death, and his search for eternal life because of his fear of irrelevance and endings. It's also a tale about the value of friendship, the struggles and victories of individualism, the repercussions of hubris, and the acceptance that nothing is ever permanent. Like most misguidedly confident heroes, Gilgamesh started out vain, conceited and privileged in this story that he thought he is the center of the universe. Upon meeting his equal, he learned to share and grow alongside this companion, (view spoiler)[and when said companion dies, his demise made Gilgamesh more self-aware of his brevity as a half-mortal being (hide spoiler)] . Like any flawed creature, he tried to escape the inevitable, refused to listen to his elders, insisted on getting his way, and stopped learning and changing for the better. Eventually, he does come to terms that everything ends...but not everything is forgotten. The fact that you are reading this review of mine after I listened to an audiobook about this story which has been translated across generations is proof that immortality can be achieved through writing and history. The Epic of Gilgamesh is a testament to how stories of universal truth never fade in memory. This story is more than three thousand years old! It is worth picking up not just for posterity but because it's a real gem and I promise you won't regret it. There are tropes, archetypes and themes here that are still being spread in the landscape of our dynamic pop culture and collective consciousness as the human race. I will leave you with this quote that succinctly summarizes this epic: “Gilgamesh was called a god and a man; Enkidu was an animal and a man. This is the story of their becoming human together.” RECOMMENDED: 9/10 DO READ MY REVIEWS AT

  22. 5 out of 5

    Aubrey

    If you want the most interesting and the most banal analysis of anything simultaneously, reduce it to the sum of its fragments shored up against the one and only death. It is intriguing for its conscripting of any factoid into a series of Socrates soundings ("Why did they buy the house?" "They didn't want to die." "Why did they cross the border?" "They didn't want to die." "Why did they not resist being raped?" "They didn't want to die.") and monotonous to the point of pointlessness for the exac If you want the most interesting and the most banal analysis of anything simultaneously, reduce it to the sum of its fragments shored up against the one and only death. It is intriguing for its conscripting of any factoid into a series of Socrates soundings ("Why did they buy the house?" "They didn't want to die." "Why did they cross the border?" "They didn't want to die." "Why did they not resist being raped?" "They didn't want to die.") and monotonous to the point of pointlessness for the exact same reason. To prevent such a dead end, focus on the coding rather than the asking, for the differences themselves lie entirely in the how: how has this social order shaped the fight against death? How has this branch of socioeconomic potential framed the fight against death? How has the death of God transformed the fight against death? More than four thousand years have passed since stone tablets encompassed the god-strewn and flood-laden world of Gilgamesh, but we as a species have not, as public sanction, changed the why of our reaction against death. Only the how. I read the age-old texts I do because I find them to be of immense comfort. Here, I can see the finale of the TV series Hannibal, the course of my favorite technopost-apocalyptica of the Husserl/Derrida/Berkeley/Lacan and then some show I am currently rewatching, much of what the news is composed of and everything that funds the sciences and the genocides. True, the factors have burgeoned and sprawled and syndicated themselves in every direction since this poetry epic was transcribed by myriad civilizations of millenia past, but the flood is there. The underworld is there. Heaven is there in all its monstrous inhumanity, and the gods fuck up just like we are able to today. I would fall back on different bastions of thought processes if confronted with the death of my most heart tendered friend, would exchange immortality for atheism and justice for ethics, but for all the prowess of contemporary technology, it has yet to find the cure for grief. The how of this text is not how it was able to survive, but that it was allowed to. Before mourning the Library of Alexandria, think on the oral histories and artistic monuments that have been sacked entire on at least four different continents. Think on the binding of the definition of "creation" into the straitjacket of inked paper and carved alphabet, the modern choosing the past in accordance to this latest trend. Think on how this text was not discovered, not recovered, but looted, a story the introduction with its "hostile Arabs performing a war-dance on the ruins of the camp" of those poor but intrepid US thieves gleefully attests to. Translated ancient texts do not spring out of thin air; nor does their composition, their interpretation, their holistic entity, especially when you are dealing with stone tablets from at least three different civilizations that may indeed have been created by official scribes, but are also equally likely to have been the effort of copying schoolchildren. I can cross reference themes between Gilgamesh and last weeks TV episode all the live long day, but a four thousand year old story never survives on the basis of its own merits. Fear of death's a great ubiquity, but how is this death conceptualized? How is it contrasted against life, if indeed it is contrasted at all? Why, exactly, is there reason to fear. Even the gods were terrified at the flood, they fled to the highest heaven, the firmament of Anu; they crouched against the walls, cowing like curs. P.S. No, I didn't read a verse translation. I'll get to one eventually. Yes, I'm including this in my Summer of Women count, cause we have no fucking clue. When we do, I'll get back to you on that.

  23. 5 out of 5

    Netta

    I strongly believe that The Epic of Gilgamesh, as well as every other thing which dates back to before Christ, should be read (and enjoyed!) within the context. Treating these surviving tablets with pieces of Gilgamesh’s story as a story of a human being living in times of gods and powerful inexplicable force ruling over tiny people, makes said story a wonderful work of literature instead of a mess you cannot relate to. In fact, The Epic of Gilgamesh is surprisingly relatable. In a nutshell, thi I strongly believe that The Epic of Gilgamesh, as well as every other thing which dates back to before Christ, should be read (and enjoyed!) within the context. Treating these surviving tablets with pieces of Gilgamesh’s story as a story of a human being living in times of gods and powerful inexplicable force ruling over tiny people, makes said story a wonderful work of literature instead of a mess you cannot relate to. In fact, The Epic of Gilgamesh is surprisingly relatable. In a nutshell, this is a story of a person (who also happens to be a nuisance king of Uruk) facing the common problems we still face and struggle with, such as loss, feebleness, fear of death. Imagine someone living in Mesopotamia dealing with it! It is fascinating to me how deeply human (and modern) Gilgamesh’s struggle is. He hardly relies on gods, and yet he believes in prophetic dreams; he’s greedy for glory and immortality as a remedy for death in the world where afterlife doesn’t seem to be a pleasant continuation of life but rather an endless roaming in the land of shadows. An epic poem is a tricky thing – it may be an out-of-comfort-zone read or a what-a-crap read. Or, which I hope would be your case if you ever fancy reading The Epic of Gilgamesh, it may be an exercise in reading the ancient culture between the lines.

  24. 5 out of 5

    J.G. Keely

    Why is it that I should feel a pit in my stomach when I think of the Library of Alexandria wreathed in fire? Cotton's Library, too, when we nearly lost Beowulf and The Pearl. Who knows what we did lose? A copy of an unknown work of Archimedes was found to have been scraped clean, cut in half, and made into a Bible. To think: a unique book of knowledge--one that outlined Calculus 1800 years before its time--was turned into a copy of the most common book in the world. As a young man, Tolkien once g Why is it that I should feel a pit in my stomach when I think of the Library of Alexandria wreathed in fire? Cotton's Library, too, when we nearly lost Beowulf and The Pearl. Who knows what we did lose? A copy of an unknown work of Archimedes was found to have been scraped clean, cut in half, and made into a Bible. To think: a unique book of knowledge--one that outlined Calculus 1800 years before its time--was turned into a copy of the most common book in the world. As a young man, Tolkien once gave a speech equating the linguistic shift brought on by the Normans as a sort of genocide, overlaying original languages with endless permutations of Rome. It is remarkable that, between accidents and purposeful destruction, some of our remote history has survived intact. Tolkien's own fictional Middle Earth is better documented than the entirety of the Dark Ages. Gilgamesh escaped total annihilation, though certainly did not survive unscathed. Buried beneath the desert sands for three thousand years, it was finally unearthed, opening a new world to us, a new history, a deeper root of literary tradition. The peculiarities of the writing and the culture are remarkable and enlightening. Far more remarkable are the similarities. The work is comprehensible, the character motivations sympathetic, and the philosophical explorations recognizable. If all the sciences are philosophy, all bent on exploring a vision of our world, then Gilgamesh is valuable to us because of the fundamental human similarities it depicts. However, we cannot say how much is fundamental similarity and how much is the influence of Gilgamesh on later works. It is either an influence on early stories of The Bible, or both books share a common ancestor. It may also have been an influence on the Greek epic tradition. There are many works and historical figures that are mentioned or referenced by other texts, but which no longer exist for us. To have one transformed suddenly from rumor to legendary tale is rare to say the least. To think that now, in the land of Uruk--once a garden, now a desert--American combat boots pound the sand, American bombs level ancient temples, and American soldiers fill sandbags with ceramic fragments. We do not need Gilgamesh to show us how little things change with mankind. We can see for ourselves that ignorance, war, and profit still can take precedence over history, humanity, and culture. As in his mortal fury Gilgamesh smashes the unknown stone things, we must seek to snatch up the unknown before the sword takes it. We cannot save what is already gone, but at least we can treasure what we find. I had the pleasure of reading N.K. Sandars' translation (the Penguin edition), which is actually his reworking (for the non-academic) of of several direct translations. Her introduction is informative, though as usual, I thirsted for more footnotes.

  25. 4 out of 5

    Leonard Gaya

    Le poème de Gilgamesh, composé, dans ses premières versions connues, il a 3 500 ans, bien longtemps avant Homère, est sans doute l'un des plus anciens témoignages de l'activité poétique et littéraire de nos lointains ancêtres de Mésopotamie, à l'aube même de l'Histoire. Cette épopée, comme chacun sait, relate le récit du roi d'Uruk, sa rencontre avec le sauvage Enkidu, l'affrontement du monstre Humbaba dans la forêt de résineux, la querelle avec Ishtar et le massacre du Taureau Céleste, la desce Le poème de Gilgamesh, composé, dans ses premières versions connues, il a 3 500 ans, bien longtemps avant Homère, est sans doute l'un des plus anciens témoignages de l'activité poétique et littéraire de nos lointains ancêtres de Mésopotamie, à l'aube même de l'Histoire. Cette épopée, comme chacun sait, relate le récit du roi d'Uruk, sa rencontre avec le sauvage Enkidu, l'affrontement du monstre Humbaba dans la forêt de résineux, la querelle avec Ishtar et le massacre du Taureau Céleste, la descente d'Enkidu aux Enfers, puis le voyage de Gilgamesh chez les dieux pour rechercher - en vain - la vie éternelle. On ne peut manquer d'être touché par le caractère à la fois vénérable et étrange de ce récit, qui ne nous parle pas seulement d'exploits héroïques, mais plus essentiellement de la sortie de la steppe et de l'entrée dans la civilisation, de l'amitié entre deux hommes ; enfin et surtout de notre finitude et de notre condition mortelle, de ce qui fait de nous des humains. Cette édition de la NRF est admirablement traduite et présentée par l'exégète biblique et assyriologue Jean Bottéro, de manière suffisamment savante pour que nous percevions comment ce texte a été, à grand-peine, reconstitué, mais aussi suffisamment claire pour que nous ressentions la beauté du poème. L'aspect le plus émouvant, sans doute, dans cette édition, est qu'elle fait sentir de manière très nette combien cette Épopée de Gilgamesh, consignée sur d'antiques tablettes cunéiformes, aujourd'hui en débris à travers le monde, est une œuvre naufragée, une épave en morceaux, repêchée des profondeurs de l'Histoire et dont il ne reste qu'un formidable et incomplet puzzle.

  26. 5 out of 5

    Teresa Proença

    Gilgamesh é um antigo poema da Mesopotâmia com origem em lendas e poemas compilados, em tábuas de argila no Século VII a.C., pelo rei Assurbanípal. (The Flood Tablet) Narra a epopeia de Gilgamesh, rei de Uruk, que oprimia o seu povo. Os deuses, para sossego dos súbditos, criaram então Enkidu "semelhante a ele como o seu próprio reflexo, como um outro ele, coração de tempestade para coração de tempestade. Eles que briguem um com o outro e deixem Uruk em paz"" Juntos vivem aventuras que desagradaram Gilgamesh é um antigo poema da Mesopotâmia com origem em lendas e poemas compilados, em tábuas de argila no Século VII a.C., pelo rei Assurbanípal. (The Flood Tablet) Narra a epopeia de Gilgamesh, rei de Uruk, que oprimia o seu povo. Os deuses, para sossego dos súbditos, criaram então Enkidu "semelhante a ele como o seu próprio reflexo, como um outro ele, coração de tempestade para coração de tempestade. Eles que briguem um com o outro e deixem Uruk em paz"" Juntos vivem aventuras que desagradaram aos deuses. "Carrega o pecador com o seu pecado, Carrega o transgressor com o seu erro. Castiga-o um pouco quando ele foge, Não o leves com severidade porque morre;" Quando se separam Gilgamesh empreende uma nova missão: a procura do segredo da vida eterna. "Gilgamesh, para onde vai a tua pressa? Nunca encontrarás essa vida que procuras. Quando os deuses criaram o homem, atribuíram-lhe a morte; mas a vida, essa ficou para eles. Quanto a ti, Gilgamesh, enche a barriga de coisas boas; de dia e de noite, de noite e de dia, dá-te a danças e alegrias, a festas e a júbilos. Que as tuas roupas sejam novas, banha-te na água, acarinha o menino que te pega na mão e torna feliz tua mulher no teu abraço; porque também isso cabe ao homem."

  27. 5 out of 5

    Zazo

    “I will set up my name in the place where the names of famous men are written, and where no man’s name is written yet I will raise a monument to the gods.”

  28. 5 out of 5

    Mahmoud Masoud

    الملحمة عظيمة جدا .. مش عارف ليه بيقولوا انها أوديسة العراق .. مع إن هي مكتوبة قبل الأوديسة زي ما ذكر د. طه في مقدمة الكتاب .. النسخة اللي معايا ( الطبعة الثالثة من دار الوراق ) .. النسخة فيها مقدمة ممتازة بتتكلم عن أدب وادي الرافدين و عن الملحمة و تاريخها و اكتشافها .. مش بس كده .. بعد الملحمة كمان فيه اضافات ( ملاحق ) و هي بعض القصص المتعلقة بـ جلجامش نفسه غير الملحمة الرئيسية و قصص عن الطوفان .. أعتقد الملاحق دي مش موجود في الطبعات القديمة من الكتاب في النهاية .. كانت وجبة دسمة في حضارة للأسف الملحمة عظيمة جدا .. مش عارف ليه بيقولوا انها أوديسة العراق .. مع إن هي مكتوبة قبل الأوديسة زي ما ذكر د. طه في مقدمة الكتاب .. النسخة اللي معايا ( الطبعة الثالثة من دار الوراق ) .. النسخة فيها مقدمة ممتازة بتتكلم عن أدب وادي الرافدين و عن الملحمة و تاريخها و اكتشافها .. مش بس كده .. بعد الملحمة كمان فيه اضافات ( ملاحق ) و هي بعض القصص المتعلقة بـ جلجامش نفسه غير الملحمة الرئيسية و قصص عن الطوفان .. أعتقد الملاحق دي مش موجود في الطبعات القديمة من الكتاب في النهاية .. كانت وجبة دسمة في حضارة للأسف مكنتش أعرف عنها كثير .. أرشحها لأي حد بيحب يقرأ أدب الملاحم و لأي حد مهتم يعرف عن الحضارات القديمة ..

  29. 4 out of 5

    K.D. Absolutely

    The Epic of Gilgamesh is an ancient Sumerian poem first discovered in Mesopotamia (now Iraq) on December 3, 1872. It is among the earliest known works of literature. This is how the tablet containing a part of the poem looks like: One thing that struck me, as pointed out also by some literary scholars, is the fact that in this epic poem, there is also a Noah-like great flood and other Biblical stories that exist here about 1,500 years before the book of Genesis was written. I mean, were there The Epic of Gilgamesh is an ancient Sumerian poem first discovered in Mesopotamia (now Iraq) on December 3, 1872. It is among the earliest known works of literature. This is how the tablet containing a part of the poem looks like: One thing that struck me, as pointed out also by some literary scholars, is the fact that in this epic poem, there is also a Noah-like great flood and other Biblical stories that exist here about 1,500 years before the book of Genesis was written. I mean, were there two great floods? Or the bible writers copied the one that happened during the time of Gilgamesh (mid of 3rd millennium B.C.)? Gilgamesh was said to be the fifth king of Uruk that was the biblical Erech in southern Babylonia (central-southern Mesopotamia, now Iraq). It was the seat of an important dynasty of kings following the flood. His mother was said to be the goddess Ninsun, wife of a god named Lugalbanda, who however was not his father. His real father was according to the king list, a high priest of Kullab from whom he derived his mortality. That is why in the story, Gilgamesh is 2/3 God and 1/3 man (not sure about how that come up with that fractions). Then Gilgamesh is pitted against the wild man (half-animal, half-man) Enkidu, who is outraged at the selfish and sexual excesses of Gilgamesh. They meet and fight for so long that they call a draw, becoming friends. On an adventure stealing cedar wood from a forest, the two meet the demon Humbaba, whom they kill. The goddess of sex, Ishtar (aha, this is the title of the 1987 movie starring Warren Beatty that is said to be the worst movie ever), is overcome with corporeal desire for Gilgamesh who rejects her. So, the gods decide that Enkidu must die (not sure why). Terrified by his own death, Gilgamesh seeks out Utanapishtim who was granted immortality by the gods after surviving the flood. Gilgamesh found the plant that will give him immortality but a serpent steals the plant from him. The epic poem is boring to read. Fragmented narration (might be because probably not all tablets have been found yet) and some of the lines do not make any sense to me (lost in translation, probably?). However, it is full of emotion especially how much Gilgamesh loved Enkidu, his former enemy (homosexuality, perhaps?) However, literary scholars say that "it reminds us of many stories of the Bible and episodes in Homer that are part of our cultural consciousness: of the universality of the friendship theme and of the experience of heartbreak over loss, of Achilles's Iliad, or even the depth of Lear's grief at his daughter Cordelia's death." I said literary scholars, because I have not read those books yet and my knowledge of those works is as dim as the moon- and starless evening sky. So, even if I got extremely bored, I am giving the benefit of the doubt to those literary scholars. Those two words: literary and scholars look awesome to me so I am giving this book two stars which according to Goodreads means it's okay. In other words, I neither like nor hate this book.

  30. 4 out of 5

    zhikan(ژیکان)

    این کتاب فوق العاده بود ،کهن ترین حماسه بشری که بر روی دوازده لوح سنگی نوشته شده است. وقتی کتابو میخوندم خیلی صحنه ها را انگار شنیده بودم بعضی جاهاشم برام گنگ بود ولی وقتی به قسمت پایانی کتاب رسیدم دیدم خیلی از داستانهایی که در کتاب ادیان اومدن برگرفته از این افسانه بودند.

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